AFRICA

Guinea,

Benin

Gold Coast

Gabon

Congo

South Africa

Mozambique

Madagascar

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In general
[001] Certain ceremonies used in worship: 1603-4
This shows some strange superstitions of the natives’ religion: A: shows a ‘fetisso’ or predicant, who stands with his two women under a tree and calls on his god. Wearing their best clothes and jewellery to impress and honour their ‘fetisso’, the women sing and leap about to the beating of a drum in the oddest manner. A black dog is also present; they imagine it to be a ghostly apparition conjured up by their performance. On the tree are several small bound tufts of straw, called ‘sainctos’, which afterwards they tie onto their arms and legs. B: shows that another form of prayer is used here, when the natives desire good business, rainfall or when they wish to find gold. C: shows a kind of magic ceremony where they invoke their ‘fetisso’ to allow no harm to come to their dead and not to hinder them on their journey. D: shows the weekly Sabbath-meeting every Tuesday, when they ‘Christen’ and exorcise their children: £95

[002]
How the natives fight each other: 1603-4
This shows how the men go to war and which weapons they use. They hold large square shields, about six feet high and four feet wide, made of cane and fortified with ox-hide. The more distinguished warriors have an iron bar, two feet long, fixed onto their valuable shields and this is painted red or smeared with earth. On top of that is a wooden frame to ward off the fiercest blows. Their weapons are mainly iron lances but in their belts they carry broad-bladed knives. They even set fire to their enemy’s houses so they become preoccupied in putting them out and are unable to fight. A: is a common warrior or ‘confokom’ who goes to battle with his bow and arrows. B: is a chief or ‘æne’ who goes to battle in the same way as the distinguished men do. C: is another ‘confokom’, with lances and dagger in his belt: £110

[003]
The natives’ court of justice: 1603-4
Here is shown how they hold their courts of law and how they judge and sentence each other. A: is a king or chief, sitting among his folk, listening to them and giving council. B: is a native, who is beheaded for stabbing a Dutchman. His head is then hung up on a tree. C: is the body, which is chopped up and carried out to the fields for the vultures. D: shows a woman drinking from a jug to steal a pact with her husband and to swear on oath that she had nothing to do with other men. E: are two people, who swear an oath of friendship: one strokes the other from top to toe with the soles of his feet. F: when those who are not satisfied with the chief’s verdict, they fight it out between themselves. G: marks the women that mourn those who are condemned and take their farewell from them: £110

[004] The way they fish by day: 1603-4
This illustrates the different methods of fishing by the natives. A: they row out at dawn, two men to a canoe, eager to be the first to catch the fish. B: these fishermen use a kind of net that is submerged for the night and is hauled up the next day. The fish they usually catch are similar to our pike. C: using long lines attached to their heads, they catch a fish called ‘quorgofado’. When they row fast the fish are snagged on these lines. D: this shows a type of herring-like fish, they call ‘sardino’ being caught on a line baited with rotten meat on a row of hooks. The boat floats quietly on the water while they fish, rather like our anglers do in Europe: £110

[005]
How the hunters catch animals: 1603-4
A: shows a leopard walking into a cage with a trap door. B: is an antelope, killed by natives, using ‘assagais’. C: shows rabbits being caught. They are frightened out of their burrows by a lot of noise and then clubbed as soon as they appear. D: shows elephants that fall into pits covered by straw and are unable to climb out: £110

[005A] The way they fish by night: 1603-4
A small fire is made in a canoe which has a few holes made in its side. The fire-light shines through these holes into the water and attracts the fish. They are then skewered with hooks or pronged implements. Sometimes also, they stand in the water with a lighted torch until a fish is attracted to the light, then they catch it with a net, similar to our drag-nets, or place a chicken basket over the fish and pull it out through a hole in the top of the basket. They then thread the fish onto a string worn round their bodies. (E: shows a wine-seller in a boat with a sail made of rushes, transporting palm-wine to his place of business: £110

[006] Agriculture and several plants: 1603-4
A: a forest is set on fire so that grain can be sown. B: the natives prepare the ground for sowing. C: a fire is made form the roots of the burnt forest. When the work is finished, the people sit around and drink. D: the grain is watched over while it grows. E: here, little red and black peas are shown growing. F: here rice is shown growing. G: here maize is shown growing. H: a tree where large beans grow. I: grain or ‘manigete’. Lastly, a palm-tree is shown. When it produces no more wine, it is cut down and the last drops burned out into a bowl. A new tree grows up from the roots of several stumps: £110

[007] The natives’ homes and ways of life: 1603-4

Each native hut has as many rooms as people. The husband has his own compartment and his wives each have a room where they sleep with their children. The women share the kitchens, do the housework and eat together. The men eat together and drink palm-wine. They have a certain ceremony when first tasting the wine. When a woman gives birth, she lays her child on a mat, with a cloth round its middle. Then she is given a special drink, reserved for these occasions. After drinking, she goes straight to the river to wash herself and the pains of her childbirth are soon forgotten. Also shown here is the king in his house with his noblemen. His home is to be recognised by the large drum and jug lying outside: £110

[008]
A nobleman is elected: 1603-4

The most desirable honour is for a man to be elected a nobleman. During this ceremony, the women leap and dance and the men have fencing tournaments. These happy celebrations last for three days. An ox, that the new nobleman has donated, is slaughtered and shared out for everyone, except for the nobleman himself. The people think he might die if he had any. A: is the ox. B: is the newly elected nobleman, who is carried in a chair through the town. Beneath his feet are two slaves. C: is the nobleman’s wife who wears a golden bracelet on her left arm. D: is the chief, sitting with his councillors, watching the dancing. E: are women forming part of the procession. F: shows female players, beating their instruments. G: the warriors who accompany the noblemen, dancing and fighting. H: women, sprinkling the nobleman’s wife with salt and white colouring. I: The common folk coming to watch the entertainment: £110

[009] The natives’ clothing and how they adorn themselves: 1603-4

A: this shows a chief’s wife (called ‘aeneodifie’) wearing feast-day attire as she walks out. She has beads or corral round her neck, her hair being decoratively bound up and dressed with small combs, as a sign for others to show their respect. She also wears a golden bracelet and carries a small fan to ward off flies. B: a common woman (called ‘etigafo’) who also wears jewellery and has strange cut-marks on her face. On her ankles she has rings of little bells that jingle when she moves, especially when dancing. On her arms are bracelets of ivory. Next to her stands a small child wearing a shirt that looks like mesh, woven from reeds or the bark of trees. This net is supposed to protect the child from the devil. C: when they meet in the mornings, the people greet each other by snapping their fingers and calling out ‘auzy’! D: this shows a couple agreeing to get married: £110

[010] How a funeral ceremony is carried out: 1603-4

A: is the open grave where the corpse will be buried, along with several items next to it. B: the corpse is carried to the grave. The women, with the rest of the folk, dance ahead and play percussion instruments. Those following behind mourn loudly with much crying and wailing. C: when the grave has been filled in, the women crawl about upon it, wailing loudly. D: after the burial, they go and wash themselves in the sea, after which they all return home in joyful spirits: £110

[011] The women of Monomotapa: 1598-9
The best of the legions in the empire of Monomotapa were women who were trained to fight from infancy. They had their left breast burnt off, so as not to hinder them when shooting with their bows and arrows, with which they were very accurate, just like the Amazons of Amazonia. These women were strong and sturdy and lived in their own territory, which was given to them by their emperor. At certain times they went off to visit the men, picking out whosoever they chose. When a warrior woman gave birth to a son, the son was sent to live with the men-folk, but if she has a daughter, the daughter was kept with the women and trained as a fighter: £95

[012] Natives battle against each other: 1603-4
The histories mention that these tribes are very pugnacious. When they go to war, they bring all their possessions with them, including their women and children. They even burn their houses to the ground so that their enemy could not take them if they won the battle. When the chief declared peace, each tribe returned a hostage to the other as a peace-offering. The hostage was carried on the shoulders of a slave, beautifully decorated and accompanied by his own chief’s servant: £110

[013] The burial of the chief: 1603-4

When a native chief dies, his closest friends want to ensure that he lacks for nothing in the next world. Therefore, they kill his family and servants so that they may accompany him and serve him on his journey. They bury them in the chief’s grave, together with his armaments. Then dishes of food are placed on top. The heads of the slain servants are modelled out of clay and earth and are mounted on stands round the grave, as if they were still alive. One or two guards are present to watch over the grave with all its decorations: £110

See also items [254], [255] and [256] under Middle East

Guinea

[014] Wild animals found in Guinea: 1603-4
Here are shown certain wild animals, some of which are dangerous to humans. A: an elephant, usually at enmity with the rhinoceros. B: a large wild cat [lion?] that can cause much damage and is a nuisance to the natives. C: a leopard. D: a crocodile found, both in the water and on land. E: a tortoise. F: a hedgehog. G: a languado. It looks like a crocodile but is found only on land. H: a rhinoceros, the enemy of the elephant (also found in Pegu and Bengal in great numbers). I: a frog similar to ours. K: a fox. L: a large type of ant, which causes great damage. M: a lizard, a so called enemy of the snake. N: a large snake found in this area. O: a large spider. P: cranes: £110

[015] The sixth part of India Orientalis: 1603-4
A true historic description of Guinea, which is a great kingdom, rich in gold and silver, known as the Gold Coast of Mina in Africa. This part includes the religious beliefs, customs, language and trades of the inhabitants. Also, it contains a short description of the sea-voyage through the Canary Islands, as far as the Cabo de Trespunctas, where the Gold Coast begins. A female with her children and a male with his weapons are shown either side of the ships that sailed out to explore this region: £110

[015A] The Portuguese fortress of Mina, in Guinea: 1603-4
This fortress was built in 1482 on the coast of Guinea, by order of the Portuguese king, Don Johannes. A: shows the castle or fortress, Mina; B: the church of St. Jogen, after whom the fortress is also named; C: the adjoining village, and D: the church called St. Jacob: £110

[016] Harmless animals found in Guinea: 1603-4
Here illustrated are a number of animals, some of which are domesticated. A: is a cow with horizontal horns over its head. B: a deer similar to our own. C: a sow, rather smaller than ours. D: a sheep (called ‘cabrito’) with a goat-like skin. E: a peacock, with colouring like those in Europe. F: a dog that cannot bark, with a longer muzzle than our own dogs in Europe. G. is an agali-cat (civet-cat). H: an unpleasant-smelling bird, similar to an eagle and with tail-feathers like those of a chicken [vulture?]. I: a type of small monkey with a beard [cercopithecus diana?] K: a goose, which originated from Holland. L: a small weasel-like creature. M: a cock and hen, similar to ours. N: the goats living out in the fields. O: the grey parrot. P: nests made in the trees by certain birds (possibly weaver birds). These nests hang on the smallest twigs, out of reach of snakes. Q: different types of monkeys. R: bees making their nests on the branches of trees: £110

Benin

[017] How the noblemen in Benin ride at court: 1603-4
The town of Benin is quite large and comprises homes with no windows, only open roofs. The more distinguished houses have three or four steps leading up to the front door. The chief and his noblemen ride out each day in the following manner: the horses are small and the saddle is a wooden chair on which a nobleman sits sideways, just as women on horseback do. On each side of the rider is a servant who supports him. The horse is lead by another servant. Others follow behind - one holding up a parasol over the rider’s head, while the rest play their musical instruments. Benin is where sentences are carried out and criminals are brought for execution. They are blindfolded, with hands tied behind their backs. Then they are forced to kneel down, with their heads held forward, so that the executioner can chop off their heads: £110

[018] Men’s heads in Benin: 1603-4
The engraving shows the various hair-styles of men, women, chiefs and soldiers, all from Benin: £110

Gold Coast

[019] Male inhabitants of the Gold Coast: 1603-4
A: shows is a typical slave, called an ‘akoba’, who goes out to the wilderness with his chopping knife or axe to gather wood. B: this shows a typical young farmer, called an ‘abaffra’, who goes to market carrying sugar cane and other goods. C: is a typical fisherman, called an ‘aponfo’ who is on his way to the sea, carrying a stool and a paddle. D: are two Negroes carrying a boat or canoe to the water. E: the farmers bringing palm-wine to the market: £110

[020] How the men folk of the Gold Coast dress: 1603-4

A: is a typical gentleman, called a ‘brenipono’, walking in the street. He wears a hat like a beret and the rest of his clothing is made of linen. B: is a typical merchant, called a ‘batafou’, coming from inland to do business in the coastal towns. His hat is of dog skin and round his waist he has a rolled up cloth made of linen or cotton. He carries a spear and an earthenware dish. C: is an interpreter who accompanies the farmer doing trade with the ships. He wears a small hat made of cane. D: are the merchants on their way home after doing business with German or Dutch ships. Their slaves, or ‘catyffs’, carry the merchants’ wares: £110

[021] The arrival of the Dutch at Gabam: 1598-9
The Dutch arrive at the river of Gabam that flows through Guinea to the kingdom of Ethiopia. They were taken to a crowd of huts, where they were received with great hospitality. In one of the huts they saw an Ethiopian king, sitting motionless on his throne. His name was Mani Gabam and he wore a horrifying necklace of bones. At his feet an old woman was warding off flies with a fan. As they approached they clapped their hands, as is the custom for these people, then they knelt on a silk blanket before him on the ground. This pleased the chief and he gave them several decorative rugs to take away with them: £65

[022] How the natives trade in boats with the Dutch: 1603-4
This shows the natives’ boats, like canoes, called ‘hem’. They are made from the trunks of trees and used for trading at sea. A: shows a Dutch ship arriving to trade with the natives. B: shows the natives coming to the ship. C: shows the natives rowing away with the merchandise they have bought, with their workers wading out to collect the goods and take them ashore. D: marks the chief’s custom-house, where the natives pay duty for the goods they have bought from the Dutch. E: a canoe being brought ashore and stored in an open shed with others: £110

Gabon

[023] How the chief of Cabo Lopo Gonsalues presents himself: 1603-4
This describes the places they call Cabo Lopo Gonsalues and Rio de Gabon, where the chief receives his visitors. He sits on a chair placed upon a platform with two or three steps, accompanied by all his noblemen. Anyone wishing to speak to him sits on a mat of straw on the ground. Also shown is one of their large boats, made from a single tree. It has room enough for 60 people. Also a ‘sea-horse’ [hippopotamus?] can be seen, of which there are many, both on land and in the water. Lastly is shown the houses, with the womenfolk, weaving mats or cooking bananas over a fire: £110

[024] More inhabitants of Cabo Lopo Gonsalues: 1603-4

Here we see more figures of Cabo Lopo Gonsalues and Rio de Gabon. A: a distinguished man decked out in his finery and carrying several types of knives in his belt. In his hand he has an ‘assagai’. B: shows a woman leading a child by the hand. Her body is full of cut marks and streaked with paint. On her legs are two or three copper or metal rings - each weighing over four pounds; C: an ordinary inhabitant wearing his every-day attire. He sells ivory to foreigners: £110

[025] What the Dutch experienced in a village called Cermentyn: 1598-9
After the Dutch had sailed two miles up the river Gambam, they discovered a small village near the water full of Black men, women and children. Many held spears and triangular knives, and shouted while clapping their hands. After sending a Black servant out to enquire, the Dutch realised these were friendly gestures and two of them went ashore. Having never seen White men before, the natives received them with joy. While clashing their knives together, they laid a path of grass at the Dutchmen’s feet, which lead to their chief. He greeted them outside his hut, while sitting in a chair made from woven rushes. As he clapped his hands, he welcomed them with the words ‘Fuio! Fuio!’ and his wife and other women began to dance. Later the Dutchmen returned to their ships with ivory and works of wrought iron: £65

Congo

[026] A description of the zebra: 1597-8
One of the provinces of the Congo is called Bamba, where one finds all kinds of creatures, including the zebra. It is also seen throughout Barbaria and Africa. This animal looks like an ass but it bears young and has a wonderful skin, which is quite unlike any other beast. It has coloured stripes: black, white and dark yellow, roughly three fingers apart all over its body, including its head, neck, ears and legs. The pattern is very distinctive and no other animal has such orderly colour designs; after white comes black, then yellow, and where yellow begins, it ends up with white again. It has a dark brown tail and hoofs like an ass. It can run as fast as a horse and even walks quickly. The Portuguese and Castilians say ‘as fast as a zebra’ when they describe something that moves quickly. The zebra breeds every year and is found in great herds but they are wild and can never be tamed, otherwise they would be used instead of horses for beasts of burden and for riding to war.
(This is probably the first ever illustration of a zebra!): £155

[027]* Map: Tabula Geogra: Regni Congo
This finely engraved map, covering the West African coast, from just south of the equator to present-day Angola, shows a highly conjectural Congo river-system, with inland mountains and lakes. Vignettes of splendid towns and settlements are marked along the river banks and in the stippled sea area is an ornate cartouche, describing the region, supported by mythological figures, all set within latitude and longitude graticules: (31cm x 38cm): £465

[028] The Title Page to the Kingdom of the Congo: 1598-9
This describes a truthful and clear description of the kingdom of the Congo in Africa and of its adjacent countries; it also describes the beliefs, lifestyle, customs and clothing of its inhabitants. This was first reported in Portuguese by Eduardo Lopez during his own navigation and experiences. Now translated into German by Augustinium Cassiodorum (and then into Latin) and beautifully illustrated and published by Johann Theodore and Johann Israel de Bry - brothers and both citizens of Frankfurt. The title panel, dated1599, appears on an ornate gothic façade, decorated with inhabitants of the region: £65

[029] The arrival of the Portuguese in the county Sogno: 1598-9

When the Portuguese first discovered the county and the inhabitants of Sogno, they were taken for gods and received with great hospitality, just as the prince of Sogno himself was honoured, he being a relative of the king of the Congo. The Portuguese subsequently converted the prince to Christianity and he was baptised. When the king of the Congo heard about this, he requested King John of Portugal to send priests to his land. Here, the arrival of the Portuguese, with their priests dressed in their vestments, is being received with great joy on the shore by the prince of Sogno accompanied by his noblemen. The Portuguese are seen erecting a wooden building in which there are three altars for the Holy Trinity, where the prince was baptised, along with his sons. The prince was given the name Emanuell and his son was given the name Antonio. The prince subsequently ordered all his subjects to give up their heathen idols and take up Christianity: £65

[030] The Portuguese appear before the king of the Congo: 1598-9

When the king of the Congo heard about his neighbour, the prince of Sogno, being converted to Christianity, he called the Portuguese for an interview in the hope of also being converted. He subsequently had all their heathen idols thrown out and wrote to King John of Portugal requesting priests and theologians to be sent to his country. Here we see the king of the Congo, sitting on his throne in the open air, gladly receiving the Portuguese. The natives are also seen lying down on their stomachs three times and lifting their heels, as a sign of their respect, as was their custom: £65

[031] How the Congolese men dress: 1598-9

This shows what the inhabitants of the Congo wore before the Portuguese arrived. The men had small square berets, usually red or yellow, more for decoration than as a protection from the sun and wind. The noblemen wore fine furs of sable, polecat, muskrat, or other beasts of prey, with the head still attached, so that the skin could be fastened together under the wearer’s armpits. Next to their skin the men wore fine textiles, woven from palm material that hung down over the knees and edged with a fringe. They also had knee-high boots of palm-cloth in the manner of the ancient Romans. These days, however, they clothe themselves like the Portuguese, with wide-brimmed hats and, on their feet, shoes or slippers: £65

[032] How the Congolese dress for war and play: 1598-9

The distinguished inhabitants of the Congo decorate their head-dresses with ostrich, peacock or other feathers and, wound cross-wise across their bare chests they have chains. Round their waists they wear belts with artistically designed little bells and, on their feet, they wear Portuguese boots. The chief has three different kinds of instruments for signalling his troops for battle: the first being a cone-shaped horn, made of thin metal, which sounds like a loud shot when it is beaten. The second is a hollowed-out stump of wood, with leather stretched across the top. The third, a pipe made of ivory with a hole on its side, rather than on the top, gives off cheerful and variable notes: £65
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[033] Women’s fashion in the Congo: 1598-9
There were three styles of dress for the women of the kingdom of the Congo. The upper-class females wore a delicately woven skirt of palm cloth that reached down to their ankles and, round their waists, they also wore on top a short skirt to their knees and fringed with tassels. From their breasts downwards they wore another short garment which covered the belts which held their skirts. On their heads they wore berets, very similar to those of the men. Their faces and arms were uncovered. Although the middle class women wore clothes similar in style, their fabrics were of an inferior quality. The lower class, or bonds-women, wore only skirts and were bare breasted and had no shoes. These days, they have adopted Christianity and dress according to Portuguese influence with black velvet caps, decorated with precious stones, veils and gold chains round their necks but not coats. The poor, however, dress the same as they had before: £65

[034] How the Congolese are transported about: 1598-9

None of the horses (probably zebras) are tame enough to ride and the people seem incapable of training the oxen to pull wagons for the transporting of goods. Instead, they use humans. When a nobleman wishes to make a journey, for example, he sits or lies on a stretcher and his servants or bonds-men carry him. If he is in a hurry and wants to reach his destination quickly, he takes a good many bearers with him, so they can change over from time to time. These bearers are so used to this kind of work that they are able to travel as fast as our own mail-coaches: £95

[035] An alternative form of transport used by the Congolese: 1598-9

We see how Mother Nature usually provided every country with provisions for the needs of mankind. Nobody should grumble if nature has not provided the Congolese with horses though, and although there are a great many zebras, no one has been able to tame and saddle them yet. So, when chiefs or other distinguished people need to travel without walking because of the heat, they have to use their own resources. They would simply be carried, as pictured above, in a type of hammock made of palm cloth. This has a pole at each end for the bearers and a cover to shade against the sun: £95

[036] Another kind of Congolese transport: 1598-9

This third type of transport is used for both pleasure walks and for important journeys. The man, who wants to be transported, sits on a leather band that hangs down in a loop from a pole and he holds onto the pole with both hands for comfort and safety. While he is being carried, he sometimes holds an umbrella to protect himself from the sun’s rays and this form of transport is just as comfortable as any other: £95

[037] Other strange creatures of the island Congo: 1598-9

Since many of the creatures found in the kingdom of the Congo are similar to those found in Germany, we thought it unnecessary to engrave all of them in copper. First there is an animal that looks like an ox but with horns like those of a Billy goat. Then comes the Impala, which is nearly as large as an ox, with long, straight horns and, in fact, much tamer than it is reputed to be. Also shown in this picture is: a palm-tree and a wolf stealing the palm oil, which is very precious. Then there is a strange two-footed creature, the size of a sheep, with a blue and green scaled skin. It has a tail, two dragon wings and a pointed mouth with sharp teeth. It lives on raw meat and is worshipped by ignorant folk as a god. There is also a snake with a round shell-like ball on its tail, which is used as a medicine for curing many illnesses. Finally, there are a number of apes and monkeys that are all very clever at learning tricks and bringing great entertainment to the people: £65

[038] How the king of the Congo had all the devilish idols burnt: 1598-9

After the king of the Congo adopted the Christian religion, he told all his noblemen and servants to hand over their pagan idols to be gathered together. Anyone found disobeying these orders was to be burnt. Within a month, a great collection of idols in the form of devils, snakes and dragons were thrown into a heap, ignited and burnt to ashes: £65

[039] The inhabitants of Loango and the Anziques: 1598-9

Loango, so called since the time of Brahma, is very likely a neighbouring kingdom of the Congo. The people carry in one hand long shields, which cover them from head to foot; in the other, long spears or daggers with skewer-like points. The spear has a round handle in the middle, which they grip. The Anziques live above the kingdom of Loango and they are the most notorious savages. They chop up and prepare human flesh just as we do animal carcasses back home. They do this, not with their enemies, but with their own friends and servants. These folk have small bows and arrows, also axes with short handles and they wear leather belts, the width of three fingers, made of antelope skin. They are otherwise quite similar to the people of Loango: £65

[040] The Dutch meet a Congolese* chief: 1601-2

With many of the crew sick with scurvy, they sailed first to Annabon, off the west coast of equatorial Africa. Poor navigation took them to Cape López de Gonzales on 10th November, 1598. The Dutch Captain Weert was sent to meet the Congolese chief to ask for provisions. He found him sitting on a throne, which was scarcely one foot high, with a lamb’s skin under his feet. He wore a violet cloak with a gilded lace collar, a pointed hat and a necklace of glass beads, but no shirt, shoes or stockings. He was attended to by his courtiers who wore cock’s feathers in their hats. (*The text says ‘Guinea’ but it was more likely the Congo.): £65

South Africa

[041] Seaweed and birds seen approaching the Cape of Good Hope: 1600-1
The sailors saw many plants floating on the surface of the sea during their voyage to India. Among these was the ‘trombas’, which was a pipe-like growth with its roots floating free in the water, also the ‘Sargasso’, which was a large seaweed with pointed, serrated leaves. The birds included one which was black and white, with a grey bill. The sight of this bird, along with the ‘trombas’, was a sure sign the ships were approaching the Cape of Good Hope: £65

[042] How the Bantu prove their success at war: 1599
The Bantu, who have chiefs in every area, often fight each other. The winners of these battles cut off the genitalia of their victims, whether they are alive or dead. After the harvest of amputated genitalia is dried, the victors offer them to their chief by putting them in their mouths and then spitting them out before him. The chief then has them gathered up and strung on necklaces like beads as a distinguished gift for his bride. It might be compared with the honour of wearing the medal of the Golden Fleece back home. Many of these people are also cannibals, while others sell their captives as slaves to the Portuguese: £110

[043] An accurate drawing of Table Bay: 1605-6 (rare)

This map shows the bay, named Table Bay by the Dutch, because of the high, flat mountain (Tafleberg) which one can look at from ten miles out to sea. The bay lies in latitude 34º 4’ south, roughly 15 miles to the north of the Cape of Good Hope. For clarity, several distinguishing features are marked here with numbers.
‘ 1’: The Table Bay. ‘2’: The Table Mountain. ‘3’: Elizabeth Island. ‘4’: The Isle of Cornelia. ‘5’: Cape of Good Hope. ‘6’: The inhabitants. The people have a clipped way of speaking, rather like the sound of a turkey. (This is one of the first maps of the area ever printed. The chart outlines the coast around the Cape of Good Hope, with vignettes of people and animals. In the sea area are sailing ships and sea monsters, and a compass rose with radiating rhumb lines shows north to the left.): £355

[044] A portrait of the natives of the foothills of the Cape of Good Hope: 1599-1601

The natives of these parts are small in build, with skin, a reddish-brown colour. They go practically naked except for the inverted skin of an ox, which they wear on their back like a cloak and a wide ox-skin belt supporting a loincloth. They also sometimes tie thin pieces of wood to the soles of their feet and decorate themselves with rings or bracelets of copper or ivory. When we slaughtered an ox, they came to ask for its insides, which they then ate raw. They also placed four posts in the ground to which they fixed an ox-skin, so it dipped in the middle like a pot. In this they placed the offal and poured water over it. Then they light a fire beneath it to warm up the brew before eating it, as shown in the picture: £110

Mozambique

[045]* A chart of the natural harbour at Mozambique: 1598-9
This shows an island in the harbour at Mozambique - possibly present-day Maputo, with Dutch sailing ships and an ornate compass rose, with North to the right. Various dwellings, including a church and a fort are named and shown on the island, with trees and mountains along the mainland coast. (21cm x 27cm): £285

[046] Portrait of Ethiopians in Mozambique, called Caffres: 1598-9
The Ethiopian Caffres live along the sea-coast that stretches to the Cape of Good Hope. Their skin is black and their hair is curly, their nose is flattened and lips swollen, pierced through with bones or pearls. Their faces and naked bodies are stigmatised by red-hot iron, with patterns like Damascus silk. The women living in Mozambique dress themselves in Portuguese (Lusitania) style, using silk given them in exchange for gold and ivory. Although the women cover their breasts and thighs, the men wear only a small covering of reeds over their genitalia. Some who live in Mozambique are Moslems, others Pythagorics, others are Christians but they have no idea of God and live rough lives: £65

[047] Conquest of a large Portuguese Ship: 1606
This illustration is shown from a certain point of the island, together with the Fortress Mozambique, and how the Dutch took possession of a Portuguese ship. A: is the Island Mozambique. B: is the Portuguese fortress, where they fire at the Dutch in defense of their ship. C: is the ship being attacked by the Dutch. D: shows the Dutch in their boats, and E: is the Dutch ship. £110

Madagascar

[048] A portrait of the country-folk on the island of Madagascar: 1599-1601
The country-folk of the island of Madagascar often carry about with them three or four long, sharp arrows, called Affagayas or Loffo. They used them as weapons and were so accurate that they could hit a coin six times in succession, just as effectively as we could with a musket. They have neither religion nor law. Once, three Dutchmen, who were exploring their land, were taken by surprise with an attack from the natives who continued throwing stones at them until they surrendered. The Dutchmen were then robbed of all their possessions, including their clothing, so had no choice but to run away naked: £95

[048A] How the natives of Madagascar dance: 1599-1601
While on this island, we saw how these wild people arrange a dance. First, about 20 men arrive, followed by women. After gathering together, the men step back with their weapons in their hands. Then they leap into the air while making much noise, swinging their feet out behind them like angry horses, so whoever was behind them was in danger of being kicked. The women stand opposite, clapping their hands, singing sweetly and beat time, while the music plays. They are the poorest people of Madagascar and go naked, except for a small woven mat, woven out of tree-bark to cover themselves with: £110

[049] A portrait of the king of Madagascar: 1599-1601
While we were moored off the island of Santa Maria, a galliot arrived with the king of the island aboard. His name was ‘Philo’ and he had in his hand a strange rod, as shown in this picture. His garment was a kind of striped cotton shirt and on his head he wore a pointed helmet, rather like a bishop’s mitre. It was beautifully decorated and on either side were horns, half a yard long, with little pointed tassels. He, and his entourage of twenty-five aristocrats, looked at our ship with great admiration. In this illustration is also shown a native from the cove of the island Tangil, with his weapon and a great wooden shield, which had at the top a long slit cut-out, through which he could see and feel safe. Their lances are two fathoms in length and have a wide, iron spearhead. The women crop their hair and wear it short as the men do and they suckle their children as shown here: £95

 [050] Plants found in the island of S. Laurenti [Madagascar]: 1600-1
‘ A’ denotes a tree with only a few twigs on the top. From this tree, canoes and boats are made. ‘B’ is a bush that the Dutch frequently encountered and was called ‘leafless’ because it hardly had any leaves and produced a scaly seed. The young tender shoots are used in the treatment of scurvy. ‘C’ is a plant that the Portuguese call ‘camarinnas’, which has a brownish leaf. Its fruit is a small pearl-like berry that tastes slightly sour. ‘D’ is a tall, thorny growth, as wide as a fist and as long as a spear. It has a black skin full of prickles instead of leaves. ‘E’ is a sugar cane that grows on the island of S. Maria. ‘F’ is the plant we call ginger: £95

[051] How the inhabitants catch whales off the east coast of Madagascar: 1600-1
When the natives of Santa Marta, off the east coast of Madagascar see a whale, they row out in their little boats and throw out a rope with a large hook on the end. When the hook buries itself in the creatures flesh, the natives pull on the rope until the wound widens and the whale becomes weak, nearly bleeding to death. Then they haul it ashore and start chopping it up. Everyone could take as much meat as they needed because it was so large: £65

[051A] How the inhabitants catch whales off the east coast of Madagascar: 1600-1
When the natives of Santa Marta, off the east coast of Madagascar see a whale, they row out in their little boats and throw out a rope with a large hook on the end. When the hook buries itself in the creatures flesh, the natives pull on the rope until the wound widens and the whale becomes weak, nearly bleeding to death. Then they haul it ashore and start chopping it up. Everyone could take as much meat as they needed because it was so large: £65        

[052] The island of Madagascar or St. Laurent: 1599-1601
Madagascar is drawn here, with its sands and rocky cliffs: ‘A’ is the place where we first anchored, ‘B’ is the island where many of the Dutch sailors were buried, ‘C’ a fresh-water lake, ‘D’ a stream of fresh-water, ‘E’ the Dutch trench, ‘F’ the corner of the port of St August, ‘G’ a small island to the south, ‘H’ the island of Santa Maria, ‘I’ a convenient cove of Santa Maria, ‘K’ the most important village of the island, ‘L’ and ‘M’ the two arms of the river, ‘N’ a rock on the west side of the island, ‘P’ an small island in the cove for fresh water, ‘Q’ a stream, ‘R’ the village of St. Angela, ‘S’ the village of Spakenburg, ‘T’ the village in the north, ‘V’ the village where we first anchored, ‘X’ where we first manoeuvred, and ‘Y’ & ‘’Z’ two other villages: £285

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