EAST INDIES

Burma inc. Rangoon

Sumatra

Java & Jakarta

Bali

Borneo

Philippines inc. Palawan

Sulawesi, inc. Molucca & Banda Sea

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In general

[108]* Chart of the Dutch Voyage to the East Indies: 1599-1601
This large chart (two sheets joined) shows the pioneering voyage of the Dutch from Holland, round the Cape of Good Hope to and from the East Indies, derives from the copious navigational data obtained by Jan Huyghen van Linschoten’s travels and personal experiences in the Azores, India and along the Malabar and Coromandel coasts. His personal experiences, supplemented by a fellow Dutchman, Derck Gerritsz, along with information smuggled back to Holland from Portuguese sailors and navigators. Numerous place names are marked round all the coasts of Africa, Madagascar, India and the East Indies, although the geographical configurations of Java, the Philippines and other islands to the East are somewhat more conjectural. This is one of the earliest charts to also show part of the northwest coast of Australia, here called ‘Terra Australis Incognita’. The chart contains a mass of early navigational data and is decorated with compass roses, radiating rhumb lines and vignettes of sailing ships. (36cm x 66cm. Backed on fine tissue, with some restoration to folds): £3,650

[109] Coins and other artefacts used for trading: 1598-9
This shows a ‘Larias’ and the two sides of seven different coins used for trading in India, Bengal, Sumatra, Java and the Moluccas during the early years of Portuguese and Dutch colonisation of those regions: £65

Burma (inc. Rangoon)

[110] Methods of transport used in Pegu: 1605-6 (scarce)
The Peguans have their own kind of transport: a large cotton cloth of many colours, fortified with iron at the ends and a roof over the top to keep off the sun and rain. This covered hammock – called a ‘delingo’, is carried by four men who quickly transported the person lying, with his head on a pillow, in comfort inside it from one place to another. In this manner the captain of the ship, along with others, were taken to the king of Pegu. Here is also shown how the Lord of Casmi travels by sea. This is a ship with many oars which sets out with a fanfare of trumpets. The Lord sits on an elevated seat with a couple of slaves beside him. Also shown is a merchant ship with two decks. On the lower deck are the rowers and the merchants sit on the upper deck. There are also many smaller boats waiting to trade: £110

[111] The king of Pegu and his audience in court: 1605-6 (scarce)
The king of Pegu is decorated in gold, silver and gems. He is accompanied by his great royal household when expecting the king of China, who is the richest ruler in the Orient. Twice a day he holds an audience, discussing matters with people. He has a magnificent elevated throne, where he sits. His hat consists of three crowns in one, the upper one being fixed onto a thin rod. His guards sit either side of him, their weapons propped up against a support made for the purpose. Next to the king are his noblemen. When he holds an audience, his white elephants are brought to him, each one walking under a canopy to shield them from the sun. The canopy is carried on four poles held up by eight servants. Others walk ahead, blowing trumpets. When an elephant reaches the king's throne, it sinks down on its knees, raises its trunk and bellows three times. Then it is led away again. These elephants are washed daily out of large containers made of silver and they feed from barrels of pure gold: £95

[112] How the king of Pegu destroys traitors: 1605-6 (scarce)
The king of Pegu's uncle was also a king. His name was Auua and he turned against his nephew as he was jealous of his greater power. He befriended one of King Pegu's noblemen but the liaison was found out and the king had the two men brought before him on the pretext of planning a battle. When they arrived he had them arrested, along with their families and relatives, a total of about 4,000 people, and had them all burnt alive: £95

[113] A battle between King Pegu and King Auua: 1605-6 (scarce)
After King Pegu had burnt the traitors, he gathered together three hundred thousand men and declared war on King Auua, who also called up his warriors in defence. While the troops held back, the two kings met on elephants and fought each other, first using blow-pipes or a primitive kind of rifle, also arrows and swords. Then the two armies started fighting but King Pegu eventually won by killing King Auua and took possession of his dominion: £75

[114] How elephants are caught in Pegu: 1605-6 (scarce)
The king of Pegu had a particular method of transporting elephants. He had a great enclosure built of strong wooden posts, with a trap-door at the entrance. At the other side of this pen were several stalls that also had trap-doors. The natives then released their especially trained female elephants; each one was rubbed with special oil, attractive to the species. These females went out into the wilderness, enticing the wild bull-elephants to follow them back to the pen. There the females went straight into their stalls and the trap-door was closed. The wild bull-elephants who followed them were then imprisoned and unable to escape. They were then kept without food or water, until they eventually became tame: £95

[115] The king of Pegu's festival: 1605-6 (scarce)
In Pegu there are many festivals. The most important one is known as Sapan Giachie. On that day, the king appeared, dressed in the most festive manner, sitting in a fancy gilded carriage, with the queen beside him. The procession travelled a distance of about twelve miles, with people holding spears at the front, followed by many more carrying pipe-like firearms. They were followed by men carrying bows, arrows and swords. Then, proceeded by six elephants, came the king's servants. The first two were painted red, while the other four were painted white. Next came the king's carriage, drawn by horses. At the rear were the aristocrats and noblemen, with their wives, all riding ornamentally decorated horses: £75

[116] Other festivities in the kingdom of Pegu: 1605-6 (scarce)
Among their many festivals, the Peguans had a particular one called Sapan Daiche – the Festival of Water. The king arrived at a certain place where everyone sprinkles each other with rose-water. The king’s noblemen also pour rose-water over each other, which soaked their clothing. There was also a festival called Sapan Donon, held at Menao, to which the king and his women travelled in a very ornate boat. About a hundred little boats, each with two rowers in, were waiting for their arrival before they began their race to a certain spot. The winner received a golden pagoda and the second, a silver pagoda but the last one receives a cloth and was mocked by the king’s women. The natives also had special days when they bathe their priests. The water they use was considered holy, so they drank it out of reverence to the priest: £95

[117] The funerals of kings and priests in Pegu: 1605-6 (scarce)
When a king dies, his friends call for a special boat. This is a kind of double boat, like a catamaran, with a gilded roof overhead, under which is a gilded framework upon which the body is laid. A fire made of pleasant-smelling wood is then lit, on which the body is burnt. The boat is then left to drift on the current, while several priests, or 'talapoi' follow behind. The priests eventually gather up the king's ashes and mix them with milk to make dough, which they throw in the water. When a priest or 'talapoi' dies, the others hold a festival over the corpse, which is laid out on a board. This lasts for several days; then a fire is made on the shore and the body is burned. The ashes are then scattered into the water and the bones buried near the home of the dead man: £95

Sumatra

[118]* Map: ‘Descripcion de las Indias del Poniete’: 1623-4 (scarce)
Derived from Jaun López de Velasco’s map, drawn about 1570 and first published in 1601 by Antonio de Herera, this edition is drawn on a slightly smaller scale. The extraordinary configurations, particularly of Borney [Borneo] and the northern parts of Las Philippinas [the Philippines] shows how poorly navigated by Europeans, these islands had been at the time: (8cm x 27cm): £475

[119]* Map: ‘Nova tabula Insularum, Java, Sumatræ, Borneonis’: 1598-9
This decorative map was derived from van Linschouten to illustrate the preliminary explorations and voyages by the Dutch to Southeast Asia, and which subsequently formed the Dutch East India Company. The region extends from the southern peninsula of Malaysia and the whole of Sumatra to parts of Borneo and Java, with many place names, including ‘C de Cinca pura’ for Singapore, to ‘Bali’. The embellishments include cartouches for the title, notes and scale bar, compass roses, rhumb lines and vignettes of the Dutch sailing ships. (38cm x 44cm) Some minor restoration: £3,450

[120] The country-folk of the island of Sumatra: 1599-1601
The island of Sumatra lies directly at the entrance of the strait of Sudan. We landed there and the chief of the village of Dampin came to meet us. He was very hospitable, so we knew we were among trustworthy people. Their finest garments were a delicate sky-blue in colour and the chief was always sheltered from the sun or rain by someone who held a parasol over his head. Moreover, he was followed by a procession of guards and a woman who carried his Betelle-box and other objects for him. The women wore long skirts from the hips downwards and above, a tunic to cover their breasts. Their hair was tied well back but some hung loose, as shown in this drawing: £95

[121] The natives of the island of Pugnatan: 1599-1601
There was an island called Pugnatan at the western entrance to the strait of Sudan, where the natives went about completely naked. Like the natives of Brazil, their hair was long and their skin very similar in colour. Their weapons were small bows and arrows and their diet seemed to consist almost entirely of fish. Also shown in this picture is an Abexin, from the neighbouring country of John the Priest. Such people are quite different, with black skin, protruding lips and broad features. They are experienced tradesmen and even better sailors: £95

[122] How the people of Banda hold important meetings: 1601
The people of Banda (Banda Aceh, on the north coast of Sumatra) sometimes gathered together to discuss the best ways of fighting their enemy. Banda is divided into three islands, consisting of six or seven towns and they were all at war with one another. The towns of Labbetacke, Combeer and Waeyer, united together to fight Nera. Nera and Lontoor, including two small islands called Pollervyn and Poelway, also united when fighting against Labbetacke. They all congregated at Nera with their galleons and after being advised how to overcome their foes, the natives sat down to a meal in the street. Each person received some bread, known as ‘saggo’, on a piece of banana-leaf and, with it, a bowl of rice cooked in meat broth. At this meal they acted as merrily as if they were at a banquet but with the manners of pigs. They scooped their rice up with their hands and threw it into their mouths. While they feasted, the gentry came with their armour and weapons for fencing tournaments, accompanied by cymbals and the beating of drums. When someone was tired, another took his place in the game: £95

[123] A shop in Banda where the Dutch sold their wares: 1601
The Dutch merchants were given a building in Banda in which to do their trading. They set out their wares and were given weights and scales by the Sabander. The weight was called a 'katti' and one pound in their measure weighed as much as five and a quarter pounds back home. The natives came to weigh their goods and trade with the Dutch. Here also shown is a bondsman, called a 'laschar', coming out of the jungle with fruit and palm-wine. The figure marked 'B', was a poor woman, who carried bundles of fruit etc., to the market: £95

[124] A description of the people of Banda: 1601
While in Banda the Dutch did some good business with a wealthy Turk, who was small in build aas is shown by the figure marked 'A'. The Turks were known as 'Goeiitiien' and were very friendly. 'B' is an aristocrat with a servant walking behind him. The servant was well dressed, so as to give him master credit. 'C' is a woman of Banda with a bondswoman behind her carrying a hat to shield her mistress from the sun: £65

[125] The ball games played in Banda: 1601
When the natives played ball, they stood round in a circle with one man in the middle. He tossed the ball and the one who caught it kicked it to the next man, only using his feet, as they played without using their hands. Anyone who missed the ball was mocked and laughed at. Some of them leapt in the air or turned about as they kicked the ball. The ball was round and woven from rushes and the game was very popular.
(This could be the first examples of football ever illustrated.): £110

[126] How the people of Nera received the Dutch: 1601
When the Dutch landed at Nera (Nias, off the west coast of Sumatra), they were well received by the ruler of the place and were invited to sit down under a large canopy. The picture illustrates the event, as follows: ‘A’: is the ruler who was a very old man. ‘B’: the king of Ternate's brother, ‘C’: the Dutch vice-admiral with his interpreter. ‘D’: the gentry of the land. ‘E’: the admiral of the sea, with his servants. ‘F’: the governor’s house. ‘G’: the common folk, listening to the conversation, and ‘H’: some Dutchmen blowing their trumpets for the natives: £95

[127] Plants, including the canior, diringuo, pucho and chiabe: 1603-4
In the Indies there are many delightful plants, which include the ‘costus indicus’ (named by the Malays 'pucho') that has a wonderful aroma. Then there is the ‘calamus aromaticus’, known as ‘diringuo’ that is common in Sunda. Next shown is the 'long pepper' from Java, called 'chiabe'. This kind of pepper is chosen by upper-class inhabitants in preference to the 'round pepper', because it is considered more health-giving. Lastly shown is the 'zerumbeth', called 'canior' by the Malays and Javanese, and this is dried and
sent to China: £45

[128] The carcapuli, canella de mato and cassia solutiva: 1603-4
The ‘caarcapuli’ that grows on the island of Sunda is a tasty, cherry-sized fruit. The Canella de mato that grows in abundance in the forests of Java is wild cinnamon. It has no particular taste but the delicate bark of the tree is very pleasant for flavouring. The ‘cassia solutiva’ grows on high spreading trees, in Sunda: £45

[129] A wedding at Chrisse, on the island of Java Major: 1613 (rare)
Chrisse is a distinguished town on Java Major (Sumatra). The Dutch often visited the place because the inhabitants were open and friendly. A great crowd of people gathered together for a wedding and formed a procession. It was led by bearers of long poles with small cymbals, called 'gummen', hanging from them, while others beat cymbals or coconut shells with sticks. More people followed with drums or cymbals round their necks. The sounds they made were really strange. Following them were about fifty, to one hundred men carrying long, two-pronged forks, decorated with peacock feathers or horse-hair. More people with round shields, spears and arrows followed, while carrying out mock fights with each other. After them came more players with cymbals and drums and about thirty maidens bearing gifts, such as flowers, household goods and clothing for the married couple. At the end of the procession was the bridegroom, riding on a beautifully decorated horse and accompanied by his friends and wedding guests, all going to the bride's house: £95

[130] The Bride and groom of Chrisse return to his home: 1613 (rare)
After the bridegroom and his friends arrived at her house, the warriors waited outside. Meanwhile, the maidens went inside with their gifts and the bridegroom got off his horse. Then the bride came out with a dish of water and washed his feet. Then they both entered the house together and after a while re-appeared outside. The whole procession then returned to the bridegroom's house. He led her indoors by the hand and the wedding, which lasted three days, took place with much merry-making: £95

Java inc. Jakarta

[131]* A description of Bantam, the capital of the island of Java: 1599-1601
The capital town of Java was called Bantam (about 90km west of present-day Jakarta) and had a beautiful harbour, as is shown here. ‘A’ is the town of Bantam. ‘B’ is an island named Paniam, for which the Portuguese offered two hundred thousand cruciats. The Javanese, however, refused their offer, as they did not want their kingdom to be broken up. ‘C’ is where rocks are visible at low tide. ‘D’ represents five islands, named by the natives Pulo Lima, behind which we anchored. ‘E’ is where there are two other islands, called Pulo Duo, on which Indian palm trees and other fruit plants grow. It is also where our ship, the Pinas, was attacked by twenty-four smaller boats. ‘F’ marks the point furthest west, near a place called Anio and a small island that lies before it. ‘G’ marks two rocks; ‘H’ two islets, ‘I’ and ‘K’ two lush and hilly islands with beautiful parks, ‘L’ is where their fighting boats wait at night, keeping watch and ‘M’ and ‘N’ are two little inlets: £110

[132] A portrait of the farmers who live outside Bantam: 1599-1601
The farmers are simple folk who have been given permission to build their town beyond the walls of Bantam. Their town is called Sura and lies at the foot of a mountain called Gonon Bezar, where much pepper grows. They have their own king who lives in the same region. They follow the law of Pythagorae and eat no meat; their main meals being rice, fruit and herbs. They do not marry and lead quite philosophical lives. They wear a white cloth, made from the bark of the Papyri-tree and it is bound round their bodies and heads. In this picture, slaves are also shown. The slaves usually work at boat-building and, save for the cotton cloth wound round their middle, go about naked and bare headed. They are always very humble and respectful of their masters: £65

[133] A typical council meeting in Bantam: 1599-1601
At certain times the councillors of Bantam gather together in the public market place, or Pacebam, to discuss matters of importance. Generally, if these meetings are concerned with legal matters, they take place in the afternoon but if the subject is of greater importance, such as preparing for a battle, they take place in secrecy, at night by the light of the moon. ‘A’ is the ruler, with four of the most distinguished captains. ‘B’ is the bishop with the elders, ‘C’: the admiral and lower grade captains, ‘D’ the aristocrats from the country, ‘E’: the Malayans, ‘F’ the Turks and Arabs, ‘G’ some young noblemen; and ‘H’ the servants and bondsmen, waiting for their masters: £65

[134] The foreign merchants of Bantam: 1599-1601
We found different merchants trading in Bantam. Three types are shown here: ‘A’ is a typical Persian merchant who comes from Coracone with jewellery and gemstones. ‘B’ is a typical Arabian merchant who travels by sea, trading from island to island, and ‘C’ is a typical Peguser merchant who is very skilled at his trade. They can all be seen trading in Bantam and their different nationalities can be recognised by differences in their clothing: £95

[135] Other foreign merchants in Bantam: 1599-1601
Apart from the merchants, of foreign nationality living in Bantam, as already mentioned above, there are others from Malacca, as shown by ‘D’. These men make a living by lending money to travellers, in exchange for double the amount when the traveller returns. ‘E’ is the Quillin who does similar business and makes a good living out of purchasing wares from the Chinese and then selling them at a good profit, and ‘F’ represents the women, with their habits and other garments: £95

[136]* The market of Bantam with all its wares: 1599-1601
This shows the market place in which: ‘A’ is where melons, marrows and coconuts are sold, ‘B’ is for honey and sugar, ‘C’ is for beans, ‘D’: bamboo and sugar cane, ‘E’: sabres, spears and daggers, known as ‘cris’. ‘F’ shows men selling cloth, ‘G’ shows women selling cloth, ‘H’: spices, ‘I’ Bengalese and Guffart food, ‘K’: Chinese food, ‘M’ is the fish market, ‘N’: fruit, ‘O’: vegetables, ‘P’: pepper, ‘Q’: onions, ‘R’: rice, ‘S’: is a walking area for the customers, ‘T’: jewellery and precious stones, ‘V’: the boats that bring all edible produce to the market, and ‘X’ is the poultry market: (18cm x 39cm): £295

[137]
Portrait of the harbour-town of Bantam [Banten?]: 1612 (rare)
Bantam is the main harbour for all ships coming from Holland to the East Indies. Here they stop to receive instructions for the continuation of their journey and the cargo they must take from the Dutch Governor General who resides there. Being the largest commercial town in the Indies, Bantam is visited by many nations such as the Chinese, Turks, Arabs, Persians, Egyptians and Japanese. A market is held there twice a day, when about thirty thousand people come together to do trade with one another. Gold, silver, gems, silk and spices are all bought and sold and the whole spectacle is wonderful to see: £95

[138] The warriors of Bantam: 1599-1601
The warriors of Bantam carry both small and large shields made of leather, also swords or long lances with sturdy spear-heads. Their clothing is made with little square pieces of tin, ringed together, like armour. The have no knowledge of muskets and so do not know how to use them. Once we tried to teach a Javanese to use a musket but when he raised it to his cheek to shoot a wild ox, the kickback knocked him to the ground, senseless. Although, when he recovered, he found he had shot the ox but had also lost two of his teeth in the process. He never wanted to touch a musket again: £45

[139] How the Dutch fought the Javanese at Bantam: 1599-1601

When we heard that the ruler of Bantam had refused to let us in with our wares, we returned to our ships and sailed into the harbour to fire upon the town. Some of our cannon-fire even reached the king’s palace and frightened the inhabitants so much that they eventually released our men. However, one of our ships, the Pinas, ran aground on some sandbanks while it was chasing a Javanese boat. As soon as the Javanese realised this they sent out twenty-four boats, full of armed men, to attack it. The Dutch defend well and, without any injury, succeeded in sinking several of the attacking boats and repelling the rest: £95

[140]* A plan of the town of Bantam: 1599-1601
Bantam (now the abandoned port of Bantam) is the capital of the island of Java Major and its layout is as shown. ‘A’ is the royal palace, ‘B’ is the Pacebam or town square, ‘C’ the outer gate, ‘D’ the fortress gate, ‘E’ the water gate, ‘F’ the barrier for closing the river at night, ‘G’ the temple or Mesquite, ‘H’ the Chinese home, ‘I’ the chief of the town’s abode, called Payera Guban, ‘K’ the stream that runs through the town, ‘L’ the Sabanders’ courtyard, ‘M’ the admiral’s courtyard, ‘N’ the Chinese market, ‘O’ the Dutch commercial centre, ‘P’ the homes of the Guffaratte and Bengalese, and ‘Q’ the bazaar or market. The Duch sailing ships as shown, moored in the foreground. (15cm x 25cm): £215

[141] A wedding ceremony in the city of Bantam: 1599-1601

When a young couple become engaged they do not leave their homes until the wedding takes place. On their wedding day they are dressed up and happy, and visited by all their friends. The man receives no dowry but only two slaves or servants. Long lances, decorated with red and white flags, are stuck into the ground to mark the route that links the home of the bridegroom to the bride. In the afternoon, a saddled horse is brought for the bridegroom, so that he can ride around the town. In the meantime the serfs or bondsmen bring wedding gifts to the couple’s new home. In the evening they have a great wedding feast, with all their friends and relatives. When the festivities are over and the guests have gone home, the bridegroom has his bride to himself and no man ever sets eyes on her again: £75

[142] How upper-class people of Java parade the streets: 1599-1601
When a high-ranking officer or dignitary walks the streets, he is accompanied by bearers carrying staves, with swords in sheaths of red or black velvet. His servants follow behind, holding an umbrella over his head and carry his accessories. These highly ranked men wear aprons threaded with golden embroidery but leave their torsos naked. Sometimes they wear scarlet jackets with velvet trimmings and turbans made of finest Bengalese material. They wear their daggers tucked into their clothing and walk about with great pride. They consider it a scandal to wear shoes. When ordinary folk meet up with them in the street, they are obliged to crouch down humbly until the procession passes: £95

[143] A typical Javanese man-of-war ship: 1599-1601

The Javanese call their man-of-war ships, Cathurs. The slaves are all seated below deck and do the rowing with oars, while the warriors remain above deck and do the fighting. These ships have some of the most distinguished people of Bantam aboard. They carry between four and six small cannons but have only one or two masts and sails. They are built in Laffaon, under the guidance and supervision of the Turks that live in that region of Java: £95

[144] Other vessels used by the people of Java: 1599-1601

The Javanese have various types of ships. One is large with two masts and sails. Another, slightly smaller one is used for transporting goods from one place to another but the fishing-boats are even smaller. We called them flying boats because they speed over the water so quickly. Their sails are usually made in Bantam and are woven from grasses or leaves and cane. They have no rudder but only simple oars on each side with which they are able to manoeuvre the crafts with ease: £95

[145] A typical Javanese dance: 1599-1601
When the people of Java dance, the men stand on one side and the women on the other, just as they do in Madagascar. The way they dance, however, is quite different. The dancers sway from side to side, stretching out an arm to one side, then pulling it back and laying a hand on their breast, with great playfulness. The musical instrument to which they dance is made from different sized pieces of sugar cane, bound together like organ pipes and arranged on a platform. A small piece of metal covers each opening at the top and the player strikes these with another piece of metal. The sound is very pleasant and five times louder than one would expect from such a small instrument: £95

[146] Another type of Javanese musical instrument: 1599-1601

There is another type of musical instrument played in Java. Under a shelter, they hang down a row of moulded gongs in descending order, each one different in size from the next, so the tones vary in pitch. There are also smaller versions, that lie on low tables and are beaten with drumsticks, and these are used in people’s houses. The rhythms are unusual but a joy to listen to. They are played in the name of the king for official business, such as when we first arrived and the king granted us permission to do business with the Javanese people: £95

[147]
The Javanese murderous attack on the Dutch ship: 1599-1601
After trading with the people of Bantam, we sailed on to another place where the four towns of Tubaou, Cydayo, Brandaon and Surubaja, lie close to one another. The king asked if he could come aboard to admire one of our ships, so our captain and his officers prepared for his arrival. However, when three small Javanese boats, called Paraos, arrived and their men climbed aboard, they suddenly began stabbing everyone with their daggers. They managed to murder the captain, the ship’s mate and ten others before we realised what was happening and were able to repel the men with swords, sabres and spears, and eventually winning the battle: £95

[148] Celebrating the arrival of the Dutch in Turban: 1601
On 23rd January 1599, the Dutch landed at Turban (on the north coast of Java) with several small boats. Great crowds of people appeared in the streets and among them were many aristocrats on horseback, wearing armour. In the evening, these natives gathered in the market place to honour the Dutch merchants by performing various tournaments and other games, demonstrating them how well the Javanese could handle their horses: £95

[149] What happened on the island of Madura: 1601
When the Dutch reached the island of Madura, off the north coast of Java, they anchored near the town of Arosbay. Here a boatload of people went ashore, hoping to do trade with the natives. But, when the Dutch landed, they were taken prisoner by the inhabitants. When the Dutch admiral heard of the high ransom they wanted for those prisoners, he sent out more boats and tried to attack the town by stealth and cunning. However, a great storm blew up, which spoilt his plans. Two of the boats sank and twenty-five men were drowned while trying to get ashore, or were killed by the natives when they did. Others were taken prisoner by order of the Rengnar of Turban: £110

[150] How the Javanese bet on cock-fighting: 1603-4
The people of Java rear cocks for fighting and put bets on them for high sums of money. The fiercest and strongest birds are taken to an open space where pairs are chosen to fight each other. Their legs are fitted with sharp spurs with which to inflict injuries and the fight is not over until one is killed. In this picture is also shown a 'Gatto Dalgalia', or civet-cat and another kind of animal that lives in the Tamarind tree: £115

[151] The bird called 'Eeme' and other creatures of India: 1603-4
Especially on the island of Java and in India, is found a strange bird, called an 'Eeme'. It is almost as large as an ostrich, with strong and sturdy legs but it has no tongue, nor wings or tail. The bird can swallow whole objects, such as apples or eggs and then pass them out again undigested, and just as they were before being swallowed. Here shown as well are the buffalo, chameleon, plus the salamander, which is also found in Madagascar: £65

[152] Plants Lantor, Assa, Pimenta, Mangostan and Pepper: 1600-1
Lantor is a kind of coconut palm (or Indian nut) with fronds as long as a human body. These fronds are used as paper. Pimenta del Rabo (or cubebe) grows grape-like on trees and is held in such esteem by the Indians that they cook and preserve them, rather than sell them to other countries. Also shown is the Tamarind tree or Assa, the plant Talasse grows in Java, and the Mangostan fruit and the black pepper is called ‘Sahang’ in Java: £45

Bali

[153] Map of the island of Bali: 1601
This is probably the first map of the island of Bali ever published. Although both the configuration and orientation are rather inaccurate, it does contain five place names, along with vignettes of settlements and sailing ships in the harbour, also mountains, trees and rivers covering most of the island. The sea areas surrounding the island are marked with rhumb lines radiating from three decorative compass roses, and to the top are two insets showing the elevations of native buildings: £345

[154] How the people of Bali transport their king: 1599-1601
There are many horses on the island of Bali but they are small and only the simple folk ride them. Those who are more distinguished let their slaves carry them, or they ride in wagons drawn by buffalo. When we first arrived, the king of the island came to greet us in just such a wagon. It was drawn by two snow-white buffalo in decorative harnesses and wearing rugs, fit for princes. One of the king’s servants sat behind the king, holding a parasol over his head to shield him from the sun’s heat. Behind the wagon a procession of bodyguards followed, carrying a long, gold-plated lance, along with ordinary arrows. After we had fired a volley of shot from our ships, in honour of the king, he wished us well and went on his way: £110

[155]
How the genteel folk of Bali are transported about: 1599-1601

The royalty and high-ranking citizens of Bali are transported about on light decorative chairs, with a shelter above to protect them from the sun and rain. The poles that support the chair are made of strong sugar-cane. The bearers are always accompanied by others who can take over from them whenever they are tired. There are also bodyguards, with lances, arrows and other weapons, who walk in front and behind. Also following are the women who always carry Betelle-boxes and water jugs: £95

[156] The king of Bali in his wagon, drawn by buffalo: 1612 (rare)
The king of Bali is greatly respected by his folk and rides out in his ornate wagon, decorated with gold and precious stones, drawn by two white buffalo. Many people accompany him, holding long painted spears, arrows and swords. He wears a crown quite unlike any other found in the whole of the East Indies. A man sitting in the wagon behind the king holds a shade over his head. The inhabitants of Bali are very good at riding in tournaments as there are plenty of horses in those parts but these ones are small and not much bigger than donkeys. The women are considered the most beautiful within a radius of six-hundred miles: £95

[157] A picture of various trees including the palm tree: 1600-1
The Jacca fruit grows only on the trunk of the tree, not on its branches, rather like the fruit of the palmates. Then there is a fruit that grows in abundance in Bali, which is the size of an apple but grows in clusters on high trees. It is round at one end and pointed at the other. The Dutch call it ‘porpucine’, because it is covered by a rough prickly skin. It is good to take on sea voyages because it can be cooked and keeps well. Also seen here is the great ‘mirabolam’, or Aretca, that is found on the island of S. Maria, off the island of Madagascar: £45

[158] Illustrations of Lancuas, Fagaras, Lacca and Cuci fructa: 1603-4
Common in Bali, Java and Sunda is a plant known as the great Galanga or Galigam. The natives, however, call it Lancuas. The fagaras, particularly found in Sunda, looks like the Cubebe and has a shell. Also shown here is the Cuci fructa with the tree it grows on. Lastly shown is the Lacca, called by the Malays, Cajulacca. It grows in Barros and Tolonbavan: £45

Borneo

[159] Map: ‘Borneo Insula’: 1602 (rare)
Borneo is the largest and most important island of the East Indies and is very fertile. It has a beautiful large cove where the capital of Borneo, lies. This consists of about two to three thousand houses, built on such a swampy area that it is necessary to go from house to house by boat. The natives are well built and lusty, and are always seen carrying their bows and arrows, spears and swords. They truly hate the Spanish and live according to the law of the Muhammadans. (This is probably the first map ever printed of Borneo): £415

[160] The penalty for criminal offence: 1606-7 (very rare)
Here we see an elderly man who is the king of Achin's brother-in-law. He is supposed to appear daily at the king's court but due to old age is often absent. The king had punished him for some misdemeanour a while ago by cutting both his ears off, along with his nose and upper lip. The other figure shown was also punished for an offence by having both hands and feet amputated, which is often the custom in these parts. If they survive this ordeal, their legs are fitted into pipe-like supports and they are held up with crutches as a warning to others. This also shows a rough sketch of the town of Achin: £95

[161] How the king of Matacalo meets the Dutch:1606-7 (very rare)
The king of Matacalo (Matak, NW of Borneo?) received the Dutch with friendship and had a long discussion with them. He wore a delicate silken vest and over it a silken tunic with buttons in front. On his head he wore a silken cap and round his legs cotton cloth. His ear-lobes stretched down almost to his shoulders. He was accompanied by a sorcerer who wore a copper plate hanging round his neck and iron chains round his body. On seeing the Dutch he began to leap about and scream with excitement. Then he approached the Dutch and showed them his copper plate, on which were engraved many images of devils. Then he took his knife and cut a hole in his thigh and pulled the chain, on which the knife hung, right through it, after which he ran off: £110

Philippines (inc. Palawan Islands)

[162] Plan and description of the harbour at Manila: 1619-20 (rare)
The harbour of Manila, carefully depicted here, is a good place for ships. The letter ‘A’ is the harbour itself. B: Shows many Spanish ships; C: The town of Manila with its large population; D: The fortress, named Cabitta; E: The isle named Mirabelle; F: The Dutch Armada of six vessels; G: The small Dutch boats going out to take hostages; H: The boats called Lunas; I: Two Dutch ships leading two captured ones to their Armada; and K: A Dutch boat capturing a native boat which was to lead to their Armada: £465

[163] In the cove of Baye la Baye at Manila: 1602
The cove at Manila bay is about eight miles round. When the Dutch noticed that this area was under Spanish rule, they hoisted the Spanish flag and dressed one of their sailors in a monk’s gown in order to trick the Spanish. But when a Spanish official was sent out to the ship to sell provisions, he became suspicious and demanded of the Dutch their official passports. Even when they produced them he was suspicious and wanted nothing more to do with them. Also shown in this illustration are a native of Manila and another of the Magellan Straits, whom the crew had encountered previously: £225

[164] Battle of the Dutch and Spanish off the coast near Manila: 1602
When the Dutch anchored near Manila, the Spanish, with 7 soldiers to each Dutchman, tried to conquer the Dutch with their great battleships. Although it seemed as if the Spanish were winning, the Dutch were able to ward them off by fighting bravely with the help of a large net, stretched out like a barrier. Many Spanish had to surrender, so their flagship was forced to turn and flee before it was damaged, but suddenly it was sunk and the entire crew were drowned. However, the Dutch vice-admiral’s ship was then pursued and captured by the Spanish vice-admiral’s ship. Here is also shown a Japanese ship, with its sails made of matting and its anchor of wood: £225

Sulawasi, Molucca & Banda Sea

[169] Portrait of the Island Solar with its harbour: 1619-20
The island Solar, to the north of Timor, has a high mountain and has a very good and convenient harbour for ships. ‘A’: is the harbour of Solar, showing what is going on within. From the inside it is difficult to find the exit, unless one is really close to it. B: is the entrance to the harbour, where one sees the very high mountain on the right; C: is another entrance with mountains on either side, although these are lower, D is the fortress of Solar, built of lime and stone; and E: shows the inhabitants and their clothing: £155

[170] People from Molucca and Java : 1598-9
The region of Molucca is the nicest and friendliest of all the Indies and has the best language. The inhabitants, especially the women dress well. The natives of the island of Java are hostile and strong-willed, well-built with rough features. They have plump cheeks, thick eyebrows, small eyes and a few hairs on their chins as beards. They are brown in colour, like the Molaccans and the Brazilians: £95

[171] The islands of Amboina and Nera: 1620
On the island of Amboina, the Dutch have a royal castle with a strong fortress. ‘E’ marks some homes of the inhabitants; ‘F’ shows the island itself, along with its buildings; ‘G’ shows the inhabitants and their dress; ‘H’ is the nearby island of Nera in Banda, with two fortresses; one is called Nassau and the other Belgium or Netherland, and ‘I’ marks Mount Ganapus, which sometimes erupts, scattering stones and trees all round, making it unsafe to go there: £155

[172] The island of Ambon and its surroundings: 1601
When the Dutch arrived they were confronted by the Admiral of Ambon with three armed ships, called ‘karkollen’ but when the visitors showed friendly intentions, they were welcomed with a volley of small shot fired in the air. ‘A’ shows a common labourer, holding a wide knife as he goes off to work in the jungle, ‘B’ is an upper-class citizen holding a spear, one and a half fathoms long, ‘C’ is a woman on her way to market, carrying her wares to sell, and ’D’ is the Admiral of the Seas, walking along with his servants who hold a ‘tiresol’ over his head. His costume is a tunic with wide sleeves rolled back and a silken cloth for pantaloons, made in the Portuguese fashion, and ‘E’ mark their strange ships, called ‘karkolles’ in which they can travel very fast: £65

[173] A picture of the island of Banda: 1601
The island of Banda (part of the Moluccas or Maluku group of islands) is divided into three separate islets and provides more nutmeg and cloves than any other in the Moluccas. There are six or seven towns, Nera (more often spelt Neira) being the most important commercial centre for all such trade done in these parts. The Dutch did much business here, but noted that the people of every town were hostile to one another: £65

[174] Fencers and the women of Molucca: 1601
The people of the Moluccan islands call these fencers 'bakeleyers'. They wear a bird of paradise on their helmets instead of simply a bunch of feathers. When they fence, they stand on only one foot, so when one of them hops forward the other hops backwards, which is very entertaining to watch. They wear a cotton tunic with wide cotton or silk shorts. The Moloccan women wear cotton cloths of many colours, with a veil over their heads to protect them from the sun. They collect water in containers made from long, thick sugar-cane pipes, about one and a half fathoms in length, which they carried under their arms: £95

[175] The galleons of Banda and Ternate: 1601
These vessels, as shown by the figure 'A', are called by the inhabitants of Banda, 'carocolla' and are used for fighting. They are made of light wood and are very fast. Their construction is quite unlike the Dutch ships in that all the joints in the wood are filled in with coconut hemp, which is mixed with chalk and another material to make it waterproof. 'B' is the personal vessel of the king of Ternate and is called a 'karkol'. It has a framework on both sides where the slaves sit, rowing two abreast. On the upper deck are people who beat drums and play other musical instruments. On board are seven cannons and spears, pointing upwards, ready for use. At the back of the 'karkol' is a beautifully decorated hammock, lined with red velvet. Here the king rests
and always has someone to fan him to keep him cool: £110

[176] The fate of the French in Anabon: 1605-6 (rare)
This shows the French coming ashore at Anabon because they had seen a priest there celebrating mass and they wished to go to the service. But while they were participating in the prayers, they were attacked by several Portuguese. The Portuguese believed the French had come to occupy the land, rather than just paying a harmless visit to the church, so they took many of them prisoner. In order to be freed, the French were obliged to pay a ransom. ‘1’ shows the priest at the altar; ‘2’, the French; ‘3’ the Portuguese; ‘4’ & ‘5’ the French boats; ‘6’ & ‘7’ the French ships; ‘8’ one of the native's canoes; ‘9’, ‘10’ & ‘11’ the natives' rafts for fishing; ‘15’ a 'bonannis-tree', which bears fruit like a cucumber and has leaves large enough for a man to hide under; ‘16’ a cotton tree, and ‘17’ a citrus-fruit tree: £95

[177] The Portuguese are beaten by the Dutch in Molucca: 1612 (rare)
On arriving at a small place in the Molucca Strait, called the island of Petre, the Dutch went ashore to repair their boats. About a hundred soldiers helped the carpenters. Meanwhile, the Portuguese arrived with five galleons and many smaller ships and attacked the Dutch. The Dutch defended themselves and even managed to kill several important Portuguese captains and officers in the battle, before the remainder of the Portuguese returned to their ships: £95

[178] The English and Dutch attack a Portuguese ship: 1605-6 (rare)
On the 14th October, 1602, the English and Dutch attack a Portuguese ship in the Straits of Molucca. On board were about 600 men, women and children, yet they came to no harm. The ship had a great cargo of 1,400 Indian wares but no money or gems. After the English and Dutch had taken most of the goods, they allowed the Portuguese to sail off with their ship, practically undamaged. ‘1’ shows the English admiral, whose name was Gems Lansester; ‘2’ the Dutch admiral, whose name was Jörg van Spielbergen; ‘3’ the English vice-admiral, S. Middelton; ‘4’ the Zeeland battleship, called The Lamb; ‘5’ the English battleship, and ‘6’ the admiral Speilbergen’s boat: £95

[179] Labetacke is taken by the Dutch: 1613 (rare)
After the admiral and several other Dutchmen had been murdered by the natives of the Banda Isles, the others took their revenge by attacking the town of Labetacke. The islanders showed great resistance, shooting back at the Dutch and throwing rocks, so the Dutch sailed round to where the burning mountain (volcano) was and, seeing that most of the natives were on the shore, approached the town from behind. There they found a large hole in the boundary wall, through which they were able to pass and attack the enemy from behind. The natives fled into the hills with great fear, so the Dutch opened the gates to the town and let in the rest of their company and beat everyone to death - young and old alike. After plundering the town, they destroyed it with fire: £110

[180] The natives attack the Dutch in Nassau Castle: 1613 (rare)
Encouraged by the English, the natives of the Banda Islands, off Timor, planned to attack the Dutch. Four thousand warriors amassed together and shot lighted arrows at the fortifications. However, a friendly native had previously warned the Dutch of the attack and instructed them how best to resist. The Dutch governor's bodyguard, along with another soldier had been bribed by the enemy so, during the battle they decided to join up with the enemy. They left the castle under cover of darkness and made their way to the enemy near the volcano. Even though one of them had the letter and a ring, from the chief of the island in his mouth to prove their liaison, they were slain by the natives: £95

[181] The town of Snakes is besieged by the Dutch: 1613 (rare)
When the Dutch realised it was impossible to make peace with the natives of Banda, they decided to take them by force. They brought over a large army of soldiers from the fortress at Nassau and attacked the town of Snakes. The inhabitants all fled to a fortress on a nearby mountain, so the Dutch met little resistance. Although they chased after them, they were driven off by the natives who threw rocks at them. However, the Dutch plundered the town, carrying booty back to their ships before burning the place. Later they returned to their fortress at Nassau and, for safety, built another smaller castle next to it: £265

[182] Plan of the towns: Ortattan and Londor on Banda: 1612 (rare)
Here we see the position of the island of Banda, plus the high, rocky volcano. Also shown are the two towns of Ortattan and Londor, which are so close that one can easily walk from one to the other in half an hour. This is where the Dutch admiral read out, with great solemnity, the mandate from Count Moriz to the natives: £110

[183] How the king of Turban received the Dutch: 1601
This illustration shows the king of Turban who was one of the most distinguished kings of the Moluccan Islands. When the Dutch came ashore in two small boats, he came to receive them in a friendly manner, riding on an elephant, accompanied by his noblemen and guards. The elephant was nearly as high as two men and was driven by a servant, walking alongside, with a hooked stick. He presented the Dutch with a beautiful dagger, or 'cris', with a sheath and golden handle, plus two unusually decorated spears, in honour of the Court of Moritz. The king wore a black velvet tunic with wide sleeves. After the Dutch had bowed before him and paid him their respects, he led them to his palace and showed them all his treasures. It is written in the histories that the king could summon as many as one thousand men together within twenty-four hours an with more time he could summon many more: £65

[184] The king shows the Dutch the exterior of his palace: 1601
The king accompanied the Dutch to his palace and showed them all the things marked, as follows: ‘A’ is the king with the Dutch on their way to the palace; ‘B’ is the king's palace, where the king and his councillors meet; ‘D’ is a mosque or temple; ‘E’ is a particularly large, fierce elephant, called the 'Big Devil'. The king rides him only when going to battle. ‘F’ shows the other elephants, each in its own stall; ‘G’ is the king's horses in their barred stalls. Even the floors, which are raised off the ground, have bars, so that the horse-dung can fall through: £95

[185] Different chambers in the king's court: 1601
The king of Turban showed the Dutch yet more of his possessions, as indicated by the letters as follows: ‘A’ is the building where the king kept his armaments in chests and boxes, piled up two or three high; ‘B’: a chamber full of cages with the king's fighting cocks; ‘C’: a similar place with cages of the most beautiful and friendly parrots, called 'noyras'; ‘D’: here live the king's hunting dogs; and ‘E’ is where the king called for his pet elephant to come and kneel before him, putting its trunk on his knee. He then rewarded the elephant with fruit after which it stood up again and returned to its stall. Each animal has its own keeper and master. Lastly, ‘F’ is the king showing the Dutch his bed-chamber. The bed was made of silk and rested on a stone table, three feet high and decorated with foliage. Hanging round the room were cages of turtledoves. The king rested on the bed and played with his little daughter, who had pretty golden bracelets on her arms: £95

[186] The wives and concubines of the king: 1601
‘ A’: last of all, the king showed the Dutch the chamber where his four wives were and with them he held a long conversation. ‘B’ shows several places where the king kept his concubines - about three hundred of them. ‘D’ (not C): is a pond with the king's waterfowl. These look like our ducks but are slightly bigger. Over this pond was a roof to give them shade: £95

[187] The Dutch reach Annabon: 1601-2
Eight days after leaving the mainland, the Dutch arrived at one of the Annabon islands (Pagalu), where they asked the Portuguese and Moors, who were occupying the island, if they could buy provisions with gold. The Portuguese refused them so the Dutch tried to take provisions by force. The Portuguese saw them advancing so they shot arrows at them, set fire to their houses and retreated into the hills. The Dutch laid out their sick in the church while they recuperated: £45

[188] The Dutch fight the Portuguese on Annabon: 1601-2

After the Dutch had established themselves on the island, small groups began to explore the mountains in search of booty but the Portuguese shot at them from time to time. When the Dutch finally found out where the Portuguese were hiding, Captain Cordes sent one hundred and fifty men inland to attack them but the Portuguese retreated, leaving behind a little food and wine. After destroying the few remaining buildings, the Dutch departed early in 1599 for the Magellan Straits: £65

[189] A mandate to the natives of Ortattan and Londor: 1612 (rare)
As soon as the Dutch admiral arrived at Ortattan, the natives assembled together, while a couple of them made a lot of noise with gongs and a large drum. When the chiefs of the islands arrived with their armed men, the admiral approached, walking under the shade of a parasol, with the mandate carried on a silver plate before him. All the chiefs sat down under a tall tree, with about two hundred natives, in a circle round them. The Dutchman seated himself on a mat of nut-leaves and read out the mandate – first in Portuguese and then in the Malay language: £165

[190] The natives attack the Dutch fortress on Nero: 1612 (rare)
After landing on the island of Nero, the Dutch built a fortress to protect themselves from the Portuguese. This however did not suit the natives, so they tried to prevent it being built. When they realised that using force would not work, they invited the admiral for a 'friendly' discussion at a certain spot near the jungle. The unsuspecting admiral went to meet them, taking with him only two of his marksmen and a servant but they were attacked and murdered by the natives. Other Dutchmen who came out to find the admiral were also killed. The remaining Dutchmen rose up against the islanders by burning all their boats along the shoreline: £165

[191] The king of Ternate's banquet for Admiral: 1606-7 (rare)
On arriving at the island of Ternate in the Moluccan archipelago, the king held a magnificent banquet in honour of the Dutch Admiral, van Neck. The king sat at the head of a table, raised up on an ornate bed of velvet and silk, with a canopy above him. The Admiral, with his councillors and captains sat either side of the king. To their side was a fine tablecloth, with plates and serviettes. Other members of the crew sat further down the table, where green leaves replaced the tablecloth. The king's sons and noblemen served the meal. During the banquet, several natives entertained the guests with dancing and fencing: £95

[192] How the natives of Ternate go fishing: 1606-7
These folk have two unusual methods of fishing. Firstly a couple of men go out in a boat, one rowing from the back, the other standing at the front, holding a spear. When he spots a fish near the surface, he signals to the rower which side to steer, so he can spear the fish. The other method involves a man standing on the shore with a long cord. On one end he ties a bundle of moss or some other vegetation; then the cord is thrown out as far as possible. It seems to be good bait as the fish are attracted to it and soon their teeth are caught in the weed, so they can be hauled back: £95

[193] Elephants hunting in Patani: 1606-7
In Patani, a method of catching elephants is used, which is quite different from that use in Pegu. Here large trained males are used. A native rides out on a bull-elephant until he meets another wild bull-elephant. As soon as the rivals are engrossed in fighting, other natives creep in and bind the wild elephant’s hind legs together with a rope. Then they pull on the rope until the animal falls helpless to the ground. If they wished to keep the wild elephant alive they save it until it becomes tame enough to handle. Other elephants are slaughtered for their tusks, which are sold in China for good money. (Engraving only, no text): £95

[194] The king of Goa visits the Dutch on board: 1612 (rare)
When the Dutch arrived at Goa, they were received with great friendship by the king. He came out to the Dutch ship several times with his galleons, carrying all his women, his brothers and his son. A substantial feast was held for the royal visitors on board the Dutch ships. The king’s galleon was very ornate, with a fine canopy, held up by four golden posts above the king’s head. The admiral presented him with a beautiful German garment in the name of Count Moriz, which the king immediately adorned himself with. (Engraving only, no text.): £95

[195] The arrival of the Dutch in Patini: 1606-7 (rare)
It is told that when the Dutch came to Patini to trade for peppers and other spices, the king sent out his most noble counsellor, called a ‘sabander’, to meet them as they came ashore. The counsellor greeted the Dutch with two elephants and accompanied them into town to begin negotiations. (Engraving only, no text): £95

[196] The Dutch meet the king of Ternate at Tidore: 1606-7 (rare)
After his success at Amboina, the Admiral hoped for luck in conquering the town and fortress of Tidore, arriving with his ships on May 2nd 1605. In this illustration the Dutch are seen coming ashore on one side of the town with 150 men. ‘L’ marks the Dutch boats in which they came ashore; ‘M’ marks ‘Caracollen’, or boats belonging to the king of Ternate. He appeared in person with 500 men, ready to assist the Dutch. ‘N’ is a place north of the town, which the Dutch set on fire; ‘O’ is the king of Ternate with his troops; ‘P’ & ‘Q’, the Dutch entering Tidore; ‘R’, the spot where the king of Ternate waited with his folk to see the outcome of events, and ‘S’, a barrier (trench) of barrels set up against the fortress: £95

[197]* The occupation of the fortress of Tidor: 1606-7 (rare)
This shows the town and fortress of Tidor, conquered by the Dutch. ‘A’: the Dutch arrive, south of the town, near an Indian temple. ‘B’: a place which the Dutch ignited. ‘C’: two barriers where the Portuguese fought to stop the Dutch from attacking two of their ships; ‘D’, the vessels that the Dutch had taken; ‘E’ & ‘F’, the town and temple of the indigenous peoples; ‘G’, the king of Tidor's palace; ‘H’, the place where the Portuguese live; ‘I’, the Portuguese church; ‘K’, the fortress of Tidor; ‘S’, a barrier outside the town; ‘T’, a fight between the Dutch and Portuguese at the first entrance; ‘V’, the fortress being attacked; ‘W’, the stone tower, from which the Portuguese defended themselves before it was blown up, along with 60 to 70 of them; ‘X’, the fortress in which Portuguese women and children took refuge; ‘Y’, the mountains where clove-trees grow; and ‘Z’, the ship of the English admiral, Henry Middleton, also ‘AA’, two ships, occupied and set on fire by the Dutch. (Hand coloured: 25cm x 33cm): £465

[198] How the Dutch were met by the king of Ternate: 1601
This shows the island of Ternate, where the Dutch arrived on 22nd May. ‘A’ shows the neighbouring island of Tidore (Halmahera in North Moluccas), occupied by the Portuguese and whose inhabitants were enemies of the people of Ternate. ‘B’ is a desolate island lying between Ternate and Tidor. ‘C’ is a fresh stream that provides the people with water. ‘D’ is the king’s ‘karkol’, which was very decorative and splendidly furnished, followed by 32 small ‘karkols’ from Tidore. From these vessels came such a horrific din of singing, wailing and beating of drums that it was enough to make one’s hair stand on end. The bondsmen sit outside the boats on wooden platforms. They are propelled by oars like wooden shovels, which they dextrously swing over their heads, before dipping them into the water. After rowing round the Dutch ship for a while they returned to land, where they neatly moored their boats side by side, as shown by the letter ‘E’: £95

[199] The town of Gamme Lamme and its surroundings: 1601
This town, on the island of Ternate, in North Moluccas, is where the Dutch did much trading. The people’s homes are made of split cane. ‘A’ shows two Dutch ships just arriving; ‘B’ is a ‘karkol’ that was sent out to enquire from the Dutch what their business was; ‘C’ is a ‘karkol’ used for battle; ‘D’ is a post in the water upon which hangs the head of an enemy; ‘E’ is the market which is under the shade of a tree; ‘F’ is the church of Musquita; ‘G’ the king’s palace, built of stone; ‘H’ a hut upon which lies an iron cannon (according to Francis Drake, this cannon was once thrown into the sea during a storm and had to be hauled out again); ‘I’ is the house which the king offered to the Dutch to live in; ‘K’ is the house where the Dutch carried out their trade; ‘L’ and ‘M’ are a monastery, named St. Paul’s, and a stone house previously built by the Portuguese; ‘N’ is the home of the king’s interpreter; ‘O’ a tower with a cannon; ‘P’ an island between Ternate and Halmahera; ‘Q’ the island of Halmahera, and ‘R’ the way into the town’s harbour, which has a barrier of stony land round it. Outside it, the fishermen go out to fish, to avoid the dirty water near the town: £95

[200] The procession of the king of Ternate: 1601
The king of Tenerate is, as the histories report, a short, stocky man with a broad head. He is very powerful and has at least seventy islands within his domain. When going out to the temple to pray he is accompanied by a procession. At the front of the procession walks a boy with a sword over his shoulder and a Billy goat on a lead. Several of the king's guards follow, with a man carrying a pot of incense in front of the king himself, accompanied by a servant holding a 'tiresol' over his head. Behind him follow the remainder of the guards, accompanied by a large flag. In such pomp the king goes on his way to the temple: £95

[201] The Islands Macian [Makian] and Bacian [Bacan]: 1619-20 (very rare)
This shows the features of the islands Macian and Bacian. ‘A’ is the Isle of Macian, with its angle towards noon from the Equator, being 8 minutes from midnight; ‘B’ is the harbour of the opposite Isle, Bacian, which is so positioned that the same number of minutes from the Equator are towards noon, as on Macian; ‘C’ is the town of Bacian; ‘D’: the fortress of stone, called Barnefeld; ‘E’: the house in which rice is stored, ‘F’: a stone house; ‘G’: the sentry-box where the guards stand; ‘H’: a boundary wall of stone; ‘I’: the entrance; ‘K’: Galla, ruins of a fortress; ‘L’: the church, and ‘M’: a well of good fresh water: £175

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