INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

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Mauritius

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Sri Lanka

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India in general

[283] The second part of Oriental India: 1599
This is an account of the inhabitants living eastwards of Africa, covering India and China and the adjacent islands. It describes their customs, clothing, religion and other ways of life, together with some Portuguese who had settled among these folk. There is also a description of the Spanish and their viceroy's residence in Goa, including a description of their wares, also weights and measures: £95

[284] Birds and fish seen during the voyage to India: 1603-4
During their voyage to India many strange birds were seen, for example, the 'Garayos' that were the size of a chicken, the 'Rabos de Juncos' that are white and about the size of a pigeon, with long tapered tails. Then there are the 'Rabos Forcados' (Frigate-birds?) that are quite black, with tails like a pair or scissors, opening and closing in flight. There were also different fish, such as Albacore and Bonito. But particularly interesting were the flying fish, which rose up out of the water to escape when chased by predatory fish but were then eaten by birds: £65

[285] The fourth part of India Orientalis: 1600-1
This is the title page to the Fourth Part of the India Voyages. It reports on the different kinds of animals, fruits, plants and trees; also on all kinds of spices, herbs, pearls and precious stones found in India. It is based on the last journey of the Dutch to the East, when they sailed out in the spring of 1598 and returned home with four ships in July 1599: £65

[286] The Indian coconut, fig-tree and others: 1603-4
The Indians have many uses for the palm or coconut tree. Not only do they obtain food and drink from its fruit, they can also make clothing, ships’ sails, rope and other important things from the tree itself. The Indian fig-tree that is shown here bears figs that the people eat daily, throughout the whole year. Thirdly shown is the tree, known as Arequeiro, on which the Arecca or Fausel fruits grow. The Indians mix the leaves with Bettel and Chalk and chew the mixture all day long: £45

[287] The bamboo, the tree of roots and the Durian fruit: 1603-4
In India there is a kind of cane, known as Bambus, which has a stem as thick as a human leg. This is used for many things as it is light and yet strong. There is also a kind of tree, called ‘Arbore de Rays’ or tree-of-roots. Long tendrils reach down from its branches to the ground, where they take root and grow. A single tree, with its saplings, often has the circumference of a quarter of a mile. There is also a tree that bears the Durian fruit and is only found in Malacca. People who taste this fruit say that it is the best tasting of all fruits in the world: £45

[288] The trees that bear Cayus and Jambos and other plants: 1603-4
Here are shown two trees that produce good fruits but it is the Jambos that is the best and most beautiful according to written accounts. Also shown is how the Perrer plants climb up the bamboo rods and the Crocus Indicus along with its flower that grows all over India: £45

[289] Pineapple, Bettel, palma dactylifera, Samaca & Mango: 1603-4
These are all Indian fruits, of which the pineapple has the best flavour and aroma. The Bettel plant is also shown here climbing up long rods and canes, just as the pepper does. The two plants are often difficult to tell apart at a distance because they grow in the same way as peas and beans. When mixed with Arecca, the Bettel leaves are chewed all day long by the Indians, especially the women: £45

[290] A picture of the Aloë, Maguey mexicanum & Sycomorg: 1603-4
Here is the aloë, or semper vivum, which is as tall as a man and found in great numbers in Agua de Sanbras. Also the maguey, often called metl, grows here, but originates from Mexico. Lastly shown is the Sycomorg that grows on the island of Mayo. It is not unlike a wild fig-tree and bears a seedless fruit: £45

[291] The extraordinary 'Abore Triste' tree of India: 1603-4
In India there is an extraordinary tree, known as the 'Abore Triste', which is regarded as one of God's miracles. This tree flowers for a whole year but only at night time. During the day the trees bears no blossoms at all but within half an hour after sunset it is covered in white blossom. These blossoms all fall off as soon as the sun rises the following morning: £45

[292] Some of the animals that are found in India: 1603-4
Although most elephants are found in Ethiopia, there are also many in India too. They are called 'Caffres' by the inhabitants and are slaughtered for their tusks, which they sell to the Portuguese. Elephants are also found in Bengal and Pegu where there is such a surplus that as many as two thousand are killed in one hunt. The animal, called rhinoceros is also found near the river, Ganges, in India, Bengal and Patane. In this river there are numerous crocodiles, which cause the fishermen much trouble: £65

[293] The bird called 'Eeme' and other creatures of India: 1603-4
Especially on the island of Java and in India, is found a strange bird, called an 'Eeme'. It is almost as large as an ostrich with strong and sturdy legs but it has no tongue, nor wings or tail. The bird can swallow whole objects, such as apples or eggs and then pass them out again, undigested and just as they were before being swallowed. Here too are shown the buffalo, chameleon, plus the salamander that is also found in Madagascar: £65

[294] An account of the Brahman and their merchants: 1598-9
The most distinguished members of the community are the Brahmin, or Indian priests. They look similar to Europeans but have yellow skin and go naked, except when they go out. Then they wear a loincloth and turban, with three strands or string draped over one shoulder and circling the body. The women also go about naked, except when they leave their home dressed in a long cloth. The second types are merchants who trade in precious stones. They are called the 'Benians' or 'Gusurats' from Campatia. Their colouring is similar to the Brahmin but they wear long white robes bound in the middle and red turned-up shoes. Like the Brahmin, they do not eat meat. The third type is the 'Canares' and 'Decanyns' from Decam or Ballagate. They trade in gold, silver, also velvet and silks and similar such wares in Goa. Their clothing is similar to the Brahmin and 'Benians' but they grow long beards and eat meat, except pork, beef and antelope, all of which they considered sacred: £75

[295] How the deceased Brahma are cremated: 1598-9
When one of the Brahma dies, his friends dig his grave, filling it with sandalwood and fragrant herbs, rice, corn and other edibles. Using oil to assist the fire, they throw the body in to help it burn. Accompanied by much music, the widow arrives and is enticed to follow her husband to be happy with him in the next world. She removes her clothes and shares out her jewellery among her friends, then leaps into the flames to be burned to ashes: £65

[296] How the inhabitants of Balagate swear an oath: 1598-9
After the ceremony of the bride, a fire is lit and the folk sitting round stir it seven times with certain words, confirming the marriage. Then they leave and go about their business. Before and after going to the temple, friends make a lot of noise with drums and trumpets in front of the bridegroom's house to indicate that a marriage is taking place. Those who wish to swear an oath are led into a circle of the ashes, some of which are put on their head. Then, with one hand on their head and the other on their breast, they swear by the god, Pagode, different oaths that they believe will eventually come true: £65

[297] A portrait of an Indian actress: 1598-9
First, shown here is an Indian 'balliadera' or dancer. She took part in public entertainments and was also willing to sell herself to any man that desired her. Also shown is a solder of this region that wore only a cloth round his waist and head, and always carried a weapon. Lastly, a farmer called a Canaryn, with his family, is illustrated. They cultivated the land and grew palms. They lived near the coast and traded with the Christians, whose religion they often adopted. They went naked, except for a small loin cloth but their wives had a cloth wrapped round them. The people of Balliadera were similar in appearance to the Decanyns but with darker skin. The men shaved off their hair, leaving only a pony tail at the back: £65

[298] The kinds of boats used for fishing: 1598-9
The Canaryns are good fishermen. They use small boats, called 'almadias', made of light wood and fibre. They also use a different kind of boat made from a single large hollowed-out tree. With this boat they transport, and sell fresh drinking-water to the big ships. There are two sizes: the larger of these is called a ‘Tomes’, the small one is called a ‘Palegua’: £95

[299] Washing among the villagers: 1598-9
Near every Indian village is a dug-out pool or pit, filled with putrid green water. This water is blessed and held in high esteem by the Brahmas. All the people, including the king, must wash themselves daily in it, from top to toe, without fuss. Because of the stench, nobody can pass by without holding his or her nose. With this water the people believe they can wash away their sins: £65

[300] The Indian idol pagodas and Moslem temples: 1598-9
Here we see the custom of the poor devil-worshippers who have their idols carved out of rock on every corner. These are called ‘pages’. The people pray here and bring offerings, which the Brahma priests take away for themselves, as if the idol had eaten them. Also here is a Moslem temple, called a ‘mesquita’, of which there are a great many in India. Near these temples is a large bath of water wherein Moslems must wash themselves before going in to pray: £65

[301] Procession with pagodas in the kingdom of Narsinga: 1598-9
In the kingdom of Narsinga is a huge pagoda, which is greatly treasured by the natives. On every feast-day it is carried around the countryside for all to see and worship. Three or four elephants pull the great wagon that has a lot of ropes tied to it. People show their awe of the pagoda by touching the ropes as the procession passes. The emperor’s women sit up in the front and play music. Many people have such devotion that they cut pieces of flesh from their bodies and throw them to the idol. Others place themselves under the wheels of the wagon to become martyrs. The bones are then kept as sacred relics: £65

[302] The aristocratic Portuguese in India: 1598-9
The aristocratic and distinguished Portuguese ride on horseback in India. The harnesses are decoratively decked out with bells. Meanwhile, the rider is shielded from the sun or rain by a large parasol and a Negro servant runs along beside the horse, keeping the flies away: £145

[303] The Portuguese in India are carried in sedan chairs: 1598-9
Those Portuguese who do not care for riding about on horseback are transported in sedan chairs. These are made of a very light but strong cane-like wood that is able to withstand considerable burdens, yet is not too heavy or uncomfortable for the bearers. These are carried by just two, out of the ten or twenty servants or bondsmen that the Portuguese own: £145

[304] How the Portuguese wives and daughters are transported: 1598-9
Portuguese females are carried in a similar way to their gentlemen but for privacy they are hidden behind curtains, known as 'pallakims'. Although the ladies are seldom seen in the street, they are transported in this manner to church and, in so doing, are accompanied by both male and female servants, as shown in the illustration: £125

[305] The pilgrimage of the Portuguese in India: 1598-9
The Portuguese have a custom whereby they walk to church, together with their servants, to hear Mass at night. They consider this a special pilgrimage and, by doing so, thereby hope to gain indulgences, as mentioned in the history books: £95

[306] How the Portuguese common-folk walk out: 1598-9
Here we see the ordinary Portuguese going for walks or to church. For a small fee, those who do not own servants can hire them to hold parasols for them, so they are shielded from the sun or rain: £95

[307] A Portuguese ship is wrecked on its way to Goa in India
In 1595 a Portuguese ship called St. Iago, with the admiral and about five hundred people aboard, set sail for the East Indies. Having carefully negotiated the Cape of Good Hope and the strait between Mozambique and the island of Madagascar, the admiral thought all his troubles were behind him. His sailors were more cautious however, and told him of the dangers ahead but he ignored their warnings and ordered full sails to be set for the East. Under a bright moon all seemed to be going well when, the ship hit a coral reef and was smashed to pieces. For the ninety souls that survived the wreck, starvation and other troubles followed: £65

Seychelles

[308] The Dutch are attacked by giant crabs: 1600-1
During their return voyage, the Portuguese were wrecked on a sandbank (the Seychelles?) From the debris they began building a smaller ship in which they hoped to return to India. While they were stranded on this sandbank, numerous monster crabs appeared and began to attack them. To protect themselves, the men had to beat them off, rescuing each other from their claws, while they built an escutcheon: £185

[309] A great earthquake on the island of St. Michael: 1599- 1601
There was a terrifying earthquake on the island of St. Michael in the year 1591, which lasted from 26th July to 12th August. In fear of being crushed, the people of Villafranca fled from their homes and went out into the open countryside to pray and fast in repentance. The earth opened up in several places, rocks and cliffs were hurled together and whole hillsides vanished completely into the water. There was much mourning and weeping for all their houses. Their monasteries were destroyed and many people were later found dead among the ruins. (On contemporary maps, for example [108] under East Indies in general, ‘Miguel’ was located roughly where the Seychelles are): £110

Mauritius

[310] The Fifth Part of India Oriental India: 1601
This describes the Dutch voyage of eight ships to the Orient, particularly to Java and the Molucca Isles, visiting Bantam, Banda, Ternate &c. They sailed from Amsterdam in 1598 and returned with large supplies of pepper, muscat, cloves and other spices in 1600. The following illustrations describe all things of interest from this journey. The strange birds at the top, to either side of the entablature, are probably Dodos, which the Dutch found in large numbers in Mauritius, on their way to the East Indies: £135

[311] A drawing of the island of Mauritius: 1601
This shows the Dutch fleet moored in the bay at ‘Truckene’, Mauritius, in September, 1598, with small craft going ashore. An anchorage, shoals and a large compass rose are shown in the sea area and in the background are the mountains: £255

[312] What the Dutch found on the Island of Mauritius: 1600-1
During their voyage to India in 1598, the Dutch landed on the island of Mauritius. There they discovered some giant tortoises. They were so large that two men could easily sit on a single shell, or else, when hollowed out, ten people could sit inside and have a meal. They also found many tame parrots and pigeons, which could easily be knocked down and killed with clubs. There was also a very strange bird, known as a 'Walckvogel', one of which was sent to Holland. (This, along with [310] above could be the earliest depiction of the Dodo, before they became extinct.): £175

Goa

[313]* A panorama view of the market at Goa: 1598-9
This shows a bustling market scene of the central square in Goa, with Indians and Portuguese trading wares, with buildings beyond: (23cm x 36cm): £365

[314] How a wife assisted in the murder of her husband: 1599-1601
A diamond-cutter, who had gone to settle in the town of Goa, eventually married a half-cast Indian woman. One of his best friends, however, who was Portuguese, became attracted to his wife and this subsequently developed into a secret love affair. One day, while the diamond-cutter was out walking in some gardens, his wife who was accompanied by the servants some distance behind her husband, met up with her lover. Together they left the party and went to make love nearby in an old hut. When, subsequently, the husband was told by the servants of his wife’s infidelity, he went to seek advice from his best friend, unaware that he was the very culprit. The lover realised it was the diamond-cutter’s intention to kill his wife, so he went to tell her that she would never be safe from his revenge unless she helped him to do away with her husband. This she agreed to do by putting some sleeping powder in his drink while he was entertaining some friends at a dinner party. That night he slept so soundly that the lover was able to climb in through the window without any disturbance and murder him. Then, taking all the diamond-cutter’s fortune, the two lovers escaped into the night: £65

[315]
A wedding ceremony of the people near Goa: 1598-9
The people of 'Belgate' [Belgaum] regard their god, Pagodes, in such high esteem that, whenever a daughter was to be married it used to take her virginity away. This was regarded as a great honour by the bridegroom. With musical accompaniment, friends and relatives gather round the bride and lead her to the temple, where the idol was standing. A long pointed ivory pole stuck out from its belly and the girl's closest relatives pushed her onto it until blood could be seen on its point. Then they solemnly lead her back home and presented her to the bride-groom. He was most impressed and happy that Pagodes had done this deed for him: £65

[316] King Hidalram's envoy in Goa: 1598-9
The king of Balagate, whose territory included Goa, had a permanent envoy stationed there because the neighbouring peoples were often at loggerheads with them. When the envoy travelled around he was carried in a sedan chair, accompanied by many servants and soldiers, known as 'Lascarim'. A parasol was held over the envoy's head to protect him from the rays of the sun: £145

[317]* Bird’s-eye-view of Goa: 1598-9
This large and extremely detailed bird’s-eye-view shows the Portuguese urban settlement at Goa, with some streets and important individual buildings named. The surrounding areas, especially to the south of the river, show land cultivations and mountains in relief appearance. Many trading vessels and other ships are also shown along the river and the title appears on a scroll above the view, with descriptive text in two ornate cartouches on either side: (38cm X48cm): £535

Calicut

[318] A treaty between the Dutch and the king of Calicut: 1606 (rare)
The Dutch Admiral, Steffan van der Haagen already knew that the people of Calicut, on the Malabar Coast of India, were not hostile to the Dutch so, when his fleet arrived he arranged a meeting with the king. The Admiral went ashore with his crew and they were met by the king and the people of Malabar. After honouring the king with several gifts, they made an eternal pact of friendship. The king had the agreement put in writing and sealed so that His Excellency, Count Moritz would be assured: £95

[319] Merchant ships in India: 1598-9
These ships, known as 'fust', were used by both the Portuguese and the Malabars to fight each other. Because of having both sails and oars, the ships were very fast and caused their adversaries much trouble. The Portuguese merchants, who did business in India during the summer, had to sail in an armada, so as to protect themselves and their wares against the hostile Malabars: £165

[320] Wives show how they love their deceased husbands: 1612 (rare)
The people of Calecut were completely heathen and adored the sun and moon, and even the devil. When a man died he was burned to ashes and these ashes were collected in an urn and kept as a special treasure in his house. His favourite wife prepared a feast on the eighth and tenth day after his death, making merry with her friends. Then they all went to a certain place where a large fire was lit. To show her great devotion to her husband, she leaped into the flames to be burnt, after which the people held a ceremony, singing and dancing in her honour: £110

Cochin

[321] An encounter with pirates on the Malabar coast: 1599-1601
The pirates along the west coast of India were notorious for bad deeds, both on land and sea. The Portuguese viceroy at Goa sent a fleet of fifteen ships to an island named Sanguifeo were a great many of these pirates were gathered. The admiral’s ship became separated and ran aground on the low tide. When the pirates, who at first had fled to the hills, realised the plight of the Portuguese, they returned and attacked the admiral’s ship. The crew fought bravely but were overcome and the admiral was killed. Then the pirates mocked the Portuguese in the other ships by displaying the admiral’s head, which they had impaled on a long pole: £65

[322] The people of Malarar: 1598-9
These people who live along the coast between Goa and Cochin were great enemies of the Portuguese and usually attack them on the high seas. Their skin was a glossy-black. The men wore only a small loincloth, while the women wore a cloth wrapped round their hips. Both men and women had long hair, which they tied back and their ear lobes had been stretched to their shoulders. They had the same religion as other heathens, although Moslems live among them. These Moslims lived in Cananor and covered their bodies with more cloth and also had short hair and ears that had not been stretched: £95

[323] A portrait of the Penekays from St. Thomas: 1598-9
Among the Malabars were a certain group of people from St. Thomas, called the Penekays. All of them were born with a swollen, deformed leg. Because of this they were considered by other Indians to be cursed. Otherwise the Penekays were similar to the Malabars in all ways, except that the men wore larger loincloths. Also shown here is an Indian from the Island Moluco, where cloves and the birds-of-paradise come from. Their clothing was of straw and their bread was made from wood and roots. Thirdly, a native of Pegu, where the most precious stones came from, was also shown here. These men looked like the Chinese but had browner skin and were homosexual. In an attempt to prevent this practice, they hung big bells made of nutshell on their genitalia and the women wore as little as possible in their attempt to attract the men: £65

[324] The king of Cochin riding an elephant: 1598-9
When the king traveled, he rode on an elephant, accompanied by his noblemen, known as 'nairos'. They carried spears and long pipe-like weapons, being well trained in their use. Many had large shields of light wood, behind which they could hide themselves. The king, like his noblemen and servants, went naked but in order to distinguish himself from other men, he carried his own special weapons and wore his own royal bracelets and other ornaments: £125

[325] A horrifying encounter with a large fish at Cochin: 1600-1
While sailing from Cochin some repairs had to be done at sea. While one of the sailors was let down on a rope to repair the rudder a great shark, known by the Portuguese as a 'Haye', attacked him and bit off one of his legs and arms. The poor man was rescued and taken to hospital, more dead than alive: £75

Sri Lanka

[326] The King of Ceylon’s coat-of-arms and their idol worship
These two signets are the coat-of-arms of Ceylon, particularly belonging to the King of Matecalo. Here added is a heathen god, which the people, both young and old, worshiped on bended knees. They prayed for many things, including riches, wisdom and health. These poor folk were dependent on the devil; they turned to him and ignore the true god: £110

[327] A sketch of the town Matecalo: 1605-6
This is the town of Matecalo, which was a royal residence in Sri Lanka. Here we were received by the rich and powerful king, known as Dermuts Iandagare. 1: The king stands in front of his palace, holding a sword. 2: Admiral Spielbergen paying his respects to the king. 3: Musicians blowing trumpets and playing other musical instruments. 4: The royal palace or castle. 5: A monastery. 6: Elephants used for entertainment. 7: The king's servants who accompanied the Admiral to the palace, and 8: Shows how the people hunt game: £175

[328] Sketch of the town, Vintane, in Sri Lanka: 1605-6
The town of Vintane lies on the river Trinquamale and is in the domain of the king of Candy, the noblest king in the country. Here the king has his boats built, as shown in Nos. 1, 2 and 3. 4: A very large pagoda, with a circumference of 130 steps. These inhabitants are very superstitious and have many ceremonies. The monks wear yellow robes and are shaved bald. They also have various musical instruments. 5: Their abbot, riding an elephant and wearing ornamental clothing of gold and silver, while holding up a sceptre. 6: The monks walking in front and behind. 7: The players and dancers. 8: The monastery: £175

[329] What Admiral Spielbergen experienced at Matecalo: 1605-6
While the Admiral’s ships were anchored near Matecalo, he spotted a strange vessel in the distance. As told in the histories, he sent out a chalaupe, or large boat with fourteen of his soldiers to conquer this ship, which turned out to be a galleon with forty six men aboard. After taking it over the Dutch spotted another galleon called the ‘Champaigne’ which they also captured, then a third. The events are shown here with numbers: 1: the ship at anchor before Matecalo. 2: the river at Matecalo. 3: the ship belonging to Admiral Spielbergen. 4: the battleship called ‘the Lamb’. 5: this is the chalaupe that the Admiral sent out to claim the galleon. 6: the chalaupe that also took the ‘Champaigne’. 7: an attack upon the galleon. 8: the Portuguese fleeing in their boats: £145

[330]* A description of the royal town of Candy: 1605-6
The kingdom of Candy, lying in the kingdom of Sri Lanka, is the capital town of the mighty King Fimala, Darma, Suriada or Don Lean d'Austria de Colombo. Admiral Spielbergen was warmly received here as the king's ambassador. 1: the Admiral is carried in a sedan Chair. 2: a boat for crossing the river. 3: the admiral is received by the king. 4: the king's men with their armaments and flags flying festively. 5, 6 & 7: through these two gates the Admiral is led to his lodgings. 8: the king's palace. 9: the king's inner court. 10 & 11: the churches standing in the palace. 12: here is where water flows down from the hills when it rains, forming a pool. 13: the king's pleasure-house stands here. In the pool many precious stones are found, washed down by the rains. The king regards these gems as treasures. 14: a distinguished colonel. 15 & 16: a citizen and his wife. 17: a slave or bondsman, who is recognised as his ear is cut off. 18 & 19: tents where the noblest people can rest from the sun. (27cm x 35cm): £425

[331]* A map of the island of Sri Lanka: 1605-6
The island of Ceylon, lying in oriental India, has a circumference of 360 miles. On this island there are different rulers, the most powerful being the king of Candy. His domain is the only one in Ceylon that is not occupied by the Portuguese. (All the others must pay tribute to the Portuguese, who have taken over the fortress of Colombo.) Here cinnamon and pepper grow, also 'korkoma' (Corchorus Oritorius) and many precious stones. On the north-west of Candy there is a place where people fish for pearls. There are also gold and silver-mines, iron and other metals, most of which are in the kingdom of Candy. The king allows nobody to take these treasures out of the country. The natives are ardent idol-worshippers and have a pagoda in every corner, either in the shape of a human or some kind of monster. (28cm x 19cm): £575

[332] The king of Candy meets the Dutch Admiral: 1605-6
This shows the mighty king who received the name: Fimala Derura Suriada as a child in Colombo. He was also christened Don Lean d'Austria do Colombo. He is of royal blood and helped a good deal in military matters, also is supporting Goa for a while. He showed great hospitality towards the Admiral and his men, discussing with them many subjects, both secular and spiritual: £175

[333] Strange ceremonies in the state of Silon : 1605-6 (rare)
Among the Oriental Indians are several from Casta who, whenever a man dies, digs a large pit. Then the corpse is placed in the open grave and his hands and feet are tied crosswise together. The dead man's wife is sent down into the grave beside him and is buried alive. The Amocchi also have a strange ceremony: whenever one of their folk wishes to make a vow before the Pagoda or has a petition, he approaches the idol, by which is a long pole with a crossbar stands. After the priests of the idol have admonished the man who has come forward, they fix him to one end of the crossbar with iron hooks embedded into his shoulders. The priests then haul him up by pulling at the rope on the other end and he is obliged to pray to the idol three times while beating his breast. After further ceremonies, the man is let down again: £95

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