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Virginia, inc. North Carolina

[334] The new found land of Virginia: 1590
This introduces an account of the nature, manner and hitherto unknown inhabitants of Virginia, discovered by the English in 1585, described by Thomas Har(r)iot, painted by John White and inscribed on copper by Theodore de Bry. Either side of the title panel are Algonkian Indians decorating an ornamental architectural façade, with the imprint below showing the date, 1590: £345

[335] A Weroan or great lord of Virginia: 1590
The Princes of Virginia wear the hair of their heads long and bound up at its ends in a knot under their ears. Yet they cut the top of their heads, from the forehead to the nape of the neck in the form of a cockscomb, with a long feather of some bird at the front and two shorter ones either side above their ears. Also, they hang on their ears, either thick pearls or the claws of some great bird, or whatever else they fancy. They moreover, tattoo their skin all over in designs different from those of the Florida inhabitants. They wear a chain of pearls or beads of copper about their necks, which they greatly esteem and, on their arms, they wear bracelets. Under their breasts or about their stomachs can be seen certain spots, where they let themselves bleed when they are sick. Round their waists they hang the skins of some beast, in such a way that its tail hangs down behind them. They carry a quiver made of small rushes and in one hand hold their bow, already bent, and an arrow in the other, ready for defending themselves. In this manner they go to war, or to their solemn feasts and banquets. They take much pleasure in hunting deer, of which there are many in that country, for it is fruitful, pleasant, and full of goodly woods. It also has many rivers full of divers sorts of fish. When they go to battle they paint their bodies in the most terrible manner that they can devise: £295

[336] One of the chief ladies of Secota: 1590

The women of Secota are of good proportion. They wear an exquisitely prepared deerskin round their navel, which hangs to their thighs and also cover their posterior. Apart from this they go naked. Their shoulder-length hair has a fringe in front, with a plaited wreath around their crowns. Their eyes are small, their noses plane and flat, their foreheads narrow and their mouths broad. Their skin was pownced (tattooed) all over and round their necks they had delicate tattoos, like a necklace. They loved to walk in the fields and beside the rivers to see the hunting of deer or catching of fish. (Secota was an Indian village near Pamlico River, North Carolina.): £295

[337] One of the Religious men in the town of Secota: 1590

A witchdoctor of the town of Secota was older and much wiser than the common man. He would indulge in magic and superstitious practices. His hair was cut in a sort of crest, like a periwig on top like the other Indians but the front part was left to grow like a fringe across his forehead. Apart from a cape of fine quilted hare’s skin, which hung from his shoulders, he went naked but from his ears hung pendants. With a bow and arrows, he enjoyed hunting ducks, swans and other wild-fowl along the river bank: £235

[338] A young maiden of Secota: 1590

Virgins, of good parentage of Secota, wore a deer skin round their waists and necklaces of pearl and polished copper, or bone-beads round their necks. They also wore pendant ear-rings and tattoos like arm bands. Their hair was cut in a fringe at two levels across their forehead and tied in a knot at the back. They pownced (tattooed) their foreheads, cheeks, arms and legs and they had large mouths and attractive black eyes. As a sign of their modesty, they often walked with their hands over their shoulders to cover their bare breasts. They took delight in seeing fish caught in the rivers: £265

[339] A chief Lord of Roanoac: 1590

A chieftain of the island of Roanock wore his hair cut in a crest along the middle but the rest was left as long as the women and tied at the nape of his neck. He has a necklace, ear-rings, and bracelet, all of pearls or small polished copper or bone beads, called ‘minsal’. He does not tattoo himself but, as a symbol of his authority, he wears a copper plate on his chest and for wisdom, he usually folds his arms. His only dress was a deer skin hung round his waist. Roanock was surrounded by water, which had an abundance of fish that formed an important part of their diet: £265

[340] A chief Lady of Pomeiooc: 1590
Near the lake of Paquippe (Mattamuskeet?) was a town called Pomeiooc. Here the chief women cut their hair in fringes and tied it in a knot at the back. They tattooed their skin all over and wore large necklaces of several strands of pearl, with copper or bone beads. They usually propped one of their arms in the necklace and, with the other, carried a gourd for some kind of pleasant liquor. They wore deerskins doubled about them, reaching almost to their knees but are almost naked from behind. Their young daughters – commonly of seven or eight years, wore girdles padded with moss between their legs. After the age of ten, they wore deerskins as the older people do. They were delighted when given toys by the English, such as dolls or rattles: £265

[341] An aged man in his winter garment: : 1590
In winter the old men of Pomeiock wore long gowns that hung from one shoulder to below their knees. Their gown was covered with fur and lined with extra skins. They left their fine but straggly beards to grow but the younger men went clean-shaven. Their hair was cut in a crescent and tied in a knot at the back. The country around Pomeiock was far more fruitful than in England: £265

[342] How the women of Dasamonquepeio carry children: 1590
Four of five leagues from the island of Roanoke lay the town of Dasamonquepeio. The women who lived there, dressed and made up in a similar manner to those of Roanoke, except that they did not wear their hair in wreathes, nor did they decorate their thighs with tattoos. They carried their children in a strange way, quite different from our own customs in which the child is carried in front of their breasts. A Child would be held in place on the woman’s back by holding its left thigh under the woman’s left arm, at the same time, holding its right hand over her right shoulder with her other hand. (Dasemonquepeuc was near Manns Harbor, North Carolina.): £265

[343] The Sorcerer: 1590

Sorcerers or witchdoctors were common among the tribes of that region. To communicate with devils, they use to make strange gestures in the hope of gaining supernatural powers, such as knowledge of their enemy’s whereabouts. Their heads were shaved clean, except for a crest of hair down the middle and their badge of office was indicated by a black bird over one ear. All they wore was a loin skin and a pouch, which hung from a belt round their waist. They were highly respected citizens on account of the truth of their utterances: £265

[344] How the Indians eat: 1590
At meal times the Indians of the region would lay a mat of twigs on the ground and set their main dish in the middle. Then the men would sit on one side and the women on the other. The meal usually consisted of boiled maize of excellent flavour, with venison or other game and fish. They always ate modestly and, probably as a consequence, were nearly always in good health and lived to a great age: £265

[345] The manner of makinge their boates: 1590

The manner of making boats in Virginia is wonderful to behold. They were able to do so without using any iron tool at all. First they chose a tall tree, wide enough for a canoe, then they lit a fire round its base, kindling the flames with dried moss and keeping the flames low, so that it eventually burnt the tree right through. Then they burnt off its branches and lifted the trunk onto a platform of convenient height, laid over crosswise upon forked posts. Then scraping off the bark and burning out the middle of the trunk and scraping off the charred surface with sharp shells. By burning and scraping, little by little, they eventually shaped the tree trunk into a fine canoe. Thus God had endowed these people with reason to survive: £265

[346]* Their manner of fishing in Virginia: 1590

Since the Indians of that region had neither steel nor iron, they had another notable way of catching fish. They used the sharp, hollow tails of certain crab-like fish (horseshoe crab) on the end of a long rod and, whether by day or by night, were able to spear fish into their boats. They also knew how to use the spikes of other fish. By setting reeds or twigs into the water they made compounds that were shaped narrower and narrower, so as to trap the fish, as is shown in the illustration. In this way, which was cleverer than anything we had known about, they were able to catch fish of wonderful variety and taste. It was a pleasant sight to see these people, sometimes sailing, and sometimes wading in those shallow waters, contented together, with their friendly state, in such a manner that God had granted to them. (26cm x 32cm): £1,150

[347] How they cook their fish over the flame: 1590
They would make a platform of sufficient height, out of four posts on which they laid a wooden grill in the form of a square, with other sticks laid crosswise. Then, when they had enough fish, they lit a fire below the grill and cooked the fish quickly, but not slowly by smoking it till it hardened for preserving and storing for the winter, as did the people from Florida. And when there were more fish than the grill could hold, they would set them on sticks laid upright next to the fire and finish them off when there was space enough for them on the grill: £285

[348] How they boiled their food: 1590
They used to cook their food in earthenware pots that had been made very skilfully by the Indian women. The pots were set upon a mound of earth, round which a fire of wood was built and kindled carefully, so that the flames were even all the way round. In the pots they would put water and boil fruit, vegetables, meat and fish, then it was served into small bowls for all to enjoy. They never over-ate and hence were fit and healthy and were able to avoid many diseases which affect us because we sometimes indulged in glutinous behaviour could learn much from these simple people: £265

[349]* Their manner of praying with rattels about the fier: 1590
When the Indians had escaped a great danger, or had returned victorious from the war, they would light a great fire to celebrate. Both men and women sat around and each held a rattle made from a certain fruit (calabash?) from which the flesh and seeds had been removed and replaced with small stones. The rattles were fastened to sticks for handles and shaken as they sang and made merry, wishing each other happiness and good luck. Thomas Hariot thought this was such a strange custom, it was worth describing. (26cm x 18cm): £415

[350]* The dances they performed at feast-days: 1590
At a certain time of the year the Indians held a great feast to which were invited the inhabitants of all the neighbouring villages. After sunset, when it was cool, the Indians assembled on a broad open place. The inhabitants of each village could be identified, one from another, by strange markings on their backs (see item [355] below). While making strange movements, they would dance round a ring of posts, carved into veiled faces, resembling nuns. In the middle, three of the most beautiful virgins would rotate, while embracing each other. (29cm x36cm): £465

[351]* The town of Pomeiock: 1590
Pomeiock was a village with a palisade all round and a very narrow overlapping entrance, typical of that region and similar also to those seen in Florida, although less well build and maintained. Inside were a few houses in which only the chief and his nobles lived, along with a temple marked ‘A’, separate from the other dwellings. The chief’s house, marked ‘B’ was built of posts tied together and covered with matting, which they rolled up for fresh air and sunlight. In the middle of the village, they held celebrations round the fire. When they lived far from water, they built an artificial pond nearby, marked ‘C’, from which they could obtain water. (29cm x 22cm): £535

[352]* The town of Secota: 1590
Secota was typical of villages in that region that were not fenced in. They were generally more attractive than those with fences because the houses were more spread out among the gardens and fields in which they planted tobacco, marked ‘E’, also pumpkins, marked ‘I’ and maize, marked ‘H’, ‘G’ and ‘F’. A little platform ‘F’ was for the watchman, whose job it was to frighten off the birds and beasts. They also had an open place ‘C’, where they danced with other villagers. Also, there was a place ‘D’, where they ate after the feast, a round plot ‘B’ where they prayed and a place ‘K’ where they built a fire to commemorate feast-days. There was also a house ‘A’ for the corpses of their chiefs and noblemen, and a river ‘L’ where they collected water. The villagers seemed to live together contentedly, without greed or envy. (This is probably the first ever illustration of a tobacco plant.) (31cm x 23cm): £575

[353]* Kiwasa – the idol of Secota: 1590
In the temple of Secota sat the idol: Kiwasa, guarding the dead chief and noblemen. It was carved in wood, four feet high, with the appearance of a Florida Indian. The face was flesh-coloured; the breast was white, with the rest black, except for white spots on the thighs. Around its neck was a necklace of white and copper beads, which they valued more than gold. Some villages have two, or even three of these idols. Their quiet presence in a dark corner was quite terrifying. The Indians seem to have no knowledge of a god but were evidently anxious to learn from the Christian settlers, as they use to attend their prayer meetings. (16cm x 21cm): £135

[354]* The tomb of their ‘weroans’ or chief noblemen: 1590
Inside the tomb stood a platform covered in matting, resting on several posts, nine or ten foot high. On top of the platform lay the corpses of the deceased chiefs or noblemen – called ‘weroans’. When a weroan died, the corpse was cut open and the intestines taken out. Then the flesh was cut away from the skeleton and dried in the sun. The skeleton, still held together by the ligaments, was then put back into the skin and laid to rest on the platform, with the flesh wrapped in matting at the corpse’s feet. To protect their corpses, they placed their idol nearby and put a deerskin under the platform and lit a fire when it was cold. (30cm x 20cm): £165

[355] The identification marks of the Indians of Virginia: 1590
All the Indians had marks on their backs to show what tribe or village they came from and those that John White and Thomas Hariot remembered are shown here. The mark ‘A’ was that of Wingina, the chief of Roanoke, ‘B’ was that of Wingina’s brother-in-law. ‘C’ and ‘D’ belonged to certain chiefs of Secota and ‘E’, ‘F’ and ‘G’ belonged to certain chiefs of Pomeiock and Aquascogoc: £185

[356] The English settlement at Jamestown: 1618-19 (rare)
In 1607 an attempt was made to set up a new colony, when one hundred and four settlers sailed up the Chesapeake Bay to Jamestown. The key characters in this story were John Smith – an experienced adventurer of twenty six years, the Indian Chief, Powatan, whose people inhabited the territory the colonists hoped to colonise, and John Rolfe, a tobacco planter, who subsequently married Pocahontas, Chief Powatan’s daughter: £155

[357] John Smith is saved by Pocahontas: 1618-19 or later (rare)

Within a few months of establishing the Jamestown colony in 1607, forty-six English had died from disease and starvation, so Smith went to try to obtain food from the Indian chief, Powhatan. On the way, he was captured by Opechancanough. They were about to kill him when he produced his compass, which persuaded the Indians he must have magical powers by which means he was released. Further wanderings took him eventually to their leader, the great Powhatan, at Werowocomoco on the York River. After some consultation, Powhatan ordered him to be clubbed to death but, at the last minute Pocahontas, the chief’s favourite daughter, rushed up to protect him by putting her head on his lap. (Engraving only, no text): £155

[358] Powhatan’s daughter is abducted: 1618-19 (rare)
In 1613, Captain Argall managed to bribe some Indian friends of Pocahontas to visit his ship with them. When she was aboard, he kept her hostage and sailed back down river the Jamestown. However, when Powhatan learnt that his daughter was being offered in exchange for the release of those English prisoners he had in captivity, he refused to negotiate. As a result, Governor Dale sailed up the York River with one hundred and fifty men and burned down an Indian village. Three months after being informed of his daughter’s capture, Powhatan released seven of the English captives but the colonists still refused to release Pocahontas: £285

[359] A truce between the Indians and the English: 1618-19 (rare)

Not having heard anything for some time from Powhatan, the English sailed again up the river with one hundred and fifty men, along with Powhatan’s daughter, to one of the his villages but several of the Indians confronted them with arrows. Later, when two of Powhatan’s sons came to the camp to see if their sister was still alive, they found out she had been treated well and promised to report the good news to their father. In 1614, when Pocahontas married John Rolf, peace settled upon the Jamestown colony: £295

[360] The Chickahominy make peace with the English: 1618-19 (rare)

When friendly trade sprung up between Powhatan’s people and the English, a neighbouring tribe, known as the Chickahominy, sent two men with gifts to Thomas Dale as a token of their friendship. Later Captain Argall and fifty of his men visited their village and a peace treaty was agreed on the condition that the Indians call themselves Englishmen and swear allegiance to King James. Moreover, they would never take any colonists or their cattle and, when required to do so, would put up three hundred men to fight with the English against the Spanish: £285

[361] Ralph Hamor visits Chief Powhatan: 1618-19 (rare)
After the successful marriage of John Rolf to Pocahontas, Thomas Dale thought he would like to marry the youngest of Powhatan’s daughters. He sent Hamor to the Indian village to negotiate the deal in Powhatan’s house. Various gifts were exchanged but Powhatan had already promised his youngest daughter to one of the great ‘weroan’ chiefs and refused to change his mind. After feasting, Hamor returned to Jamestown with some white deerskins for Thomas Dale but without Powhatan’s daughter: £275

[362] English sporting life in Virginia: 1618-19 (very rare)
It was said that the land, water and air in those parts teemed with life and the English spent much time hunting deer, or catching wildlife with dogs. Several hundred fish could be caught in a day and hawks could be trained to catch six or seven wildfowl in an hour or so. (This view, that hunting in Virginia was a gentleman’s sport, was unrealistic. For many years, total extinction was a serious threat for the colonists: £225

Florida, inc. also Georgia and South Carolina

[363] De Soto in Florida: 1595
De Soto was an experienced conquistador, who had been with Pizarro in Peru and subsequently became governor of Cuba and the adelantado of Florida. In 1539 he landed in Tampa Bay in Florida to begin his long and almost fruitless searches for gold among the inhospitable swamps and forests of the south-east. Here are shown some of the cruelties he was believed to have inflicted on the native Indians, who were forced to invent stories of gold, which they told him could be found elsewhere in order to appease him. In the background are the Appalachian Mountains, way beyond Florida, which de Soto eventually reached, near Blue Ridge: £95

[364] ‘Brevis Narratio eorum quæ in Florida’: 1591
The title panel is displayed upon an architectural façade, embellished with the Timucuan Indians of that region, as drawn on location by the artist Jacques le Moyne. Below is a small cartouche containing de Bry’s imprint along with the date and place of publication. De Bry wrote: ‘just as I show how I received the illustrations of Virginia, I find it correct to tell you that these pictures and writings are from the widow Jocobi le Moyne, otherwise called Morgues, an excellent artist. Accompanying Laudonniere on the other voyage to this place, he made these drawings. During his life he had often given me illustrated reports on past travels. I was very pleased to receive these works and could print them at no cost. My children and I took great pains to engrave them in copper to make them more refined, although these delicate lines soon become worn with usage. As I received all these papers mixed up together, I would never have been able to carry out this exercise had it not been for a very dear friend. The pictures of the scenery, its design and how the inhabitants lived and worked, has been made as realistic as possible for you to enjoy, as if you were actually there’: £95

[365] Noah’s Arc: 1591
‘ Esteemed Reader’, wrote de Bry: ‘you need not believe that the illustrations of Virginia and this illustration of a scene in Florida, printed some months ago, are entirely for pleasure, although many people delight in them, they portray the immeasurable and wonderful work of God; showing us the way to salvation. The unfortunate inhabitants of Florida and other adjacent places who are more likely to be the offspring of Noah’s son, Ham than any of his other sons, who have no knowledge of God. Although these people have been blessed with sturdy, strong and healthy bodies, they have weak characters. White-skinned at birth, they obtain a yellow colour by using an ointment to enhance the rays of the sun’: £425

[366] The arrival of the French in Florida: 1591
On arriving in Florida, the French landed on a flat, heavily wooded promontory, which the commander named Cape François in honour of France. This cape lies about 30 degrees north of the Equator. From there they sailed northwards, along the featureless coastline, until they reached the estuary of a beautiful broad river. There they anchored so as to explore it the next day. (On Ribaut’s voyage in 1562 with Laudonnière, as second in command) it was named Dolphin River, because of the many dolphins they saw swimming in it. When the French reached the riverbank they were met by a number of Indians, who greeted them in a kindly manner. As they seemed anxious to show friendship, some of them gave their garments, made of skins, to the French commander and offered to take him to meet their chief. As the Frenchmen approached, they saw the chief sitting upon boughs of palm and laurel. Although he did not get up to greet the French, he presented their commander with a large skin decorated with pictures of wild animals. (The two names marked on this engraving, ‘Prom. Gallicum’ and ‘F. Delfinum’, are the Latinised versions of Cape François, know today as St. Augustine and Dolphin River, which is either Ponce de Leon or Matanzas Inlet, both of which are to the south of St. Augustine and not, as suggest in this illustration, to the north): £155

[367] Sailing to the River of May: 1591
The French continued sailing on until they found another place to land. Here they were greeted by many Indians, some of whom waded out into the water up to their shoulders, bearing baskets of maize as gifts, also mulberries. Others carried them ashore, where they were met by the chief, his two sons and others warriors - all carrying bows, with quivers of arrows. After exchanging greetings the French explored the surrounding woods, hoping to discover fresh wonders. They discovered only mulberry trees with red and white berries, covered with silk worms. They named the river the River of May (St. Johns) because they discovered it on the first day of that month: £155

[368] After the May River, they discover two other rivers: 1591
The French once more returned to their ships, weighed anchor and sailed further up the coast until they reached another lovely river, which Captain Ribaut wanted to investigate in the presence of the local inhabitants and their king. He called this river the Seine, because it resembled the Seine in France. After returning to their ships they sailed further north but had not gone much further when they discovered another lovely river. In order to explore it more easily, they got two small boats ready. They discovered an island in this river whose chief was as friendly as the others we have already reported about. They named this river the Somme or Axona, which is about six miles from the Seine. (The river marked on the engraving ‘F. Axona, Iricana' is evidently the Somme but has the suffix Iracana, after the Indians on this river. Today, it is known as St. Andrews Sound, Georgia. The fish-pens, shown in the river estuary, are ‘reed enclosures made in the form of a labyrinth’ by the Indians and from which the fish found it almost impossible to escape): £95

[369] The French discover six more rivers: 1591

When they had sailed on for about six miles, they discovered another river, which they called the Ligeris, or Loire (probably Altamaha Sound). Then after that they discovered five more. The first of these was the Charenta or Charente [probably Sapelo Sound] the next the Garumna, or Garonne (probably St Catherine’s Sound) the third the Gironda, or Gironde (Ossabaw Sound) the fourth the Bellum, or Belle (probably Wassaw Sound) and the fifth the Magnum, or Grande (probably Tybee Roads). Although they had explored and seen many curious things along the nine rivers on their sixty mile journey, they were still not satisfied, so they sailed still further north, choosing a course which they thought would bring them to the River of Jordan, the most lovely river of all in that northern region.
(The Jordan River is shown on early maps but its present-day location is uncertain; Cape Fear, Pee Dee River, South Santee River and Charleston Harbor have all been suggested): £285

[370] The French reach Port Royal: 1591
Not far from there was a wide river, said to be bigger and lovelier than all the others. When they arrived they called it Portuus Regalis or Port Royal because of its size and beauty. There they brought in the sails and dropped anchor in ten fathoms. When the captain and his soldiers went ashore, they declared it to be a fine place because there were oaks, cedars and many other trees growing there. (Port Royal, is either Port Royal Sound or St. Helena Sound in South Carolina.): £285

[371] The French erect a column with the royal coat of arms: 1591

After the French had spent a night on their ships, the captain ordered a monument, shaped like a column with the coat of arms of the King of France engraved on it, to be unloaded into a boat for ferrying to a pleasant place. Further within Port Royal they come across an island they call ‘Libourne’, marked ‘F’ in the picture, on which they erect this column. This marked the northern boundary to the territory they claimed for the King of France in the New World. (Its exact location is not known but is believed to be somewhere around Beaufort, South Carolina.): £165

[372] Those left behind run short of food: 1591

Soon after Captain Ribaut had said farewell to Florida, the thirty or so Frenchmen whom he left behind began to build a garrison, which they called Charlesfort [probably near present day Beaufort]. Soon after though, they began to run out of food. After discussing how best to overcome the problem, they could only think of going to Chief Ovadé and his brother, Covecxis. Thus, several of them made preparations to row there in an Indian canoe. They travelled many miles along alligator infested rivers to find help from these Indians: £65

[373] The Indians worship the stone column: 1591
The French, under the command of Captain Laudonnière, on their second voyage to Florida in 1564, went ashore with twenty-five arquebusiers and were greeted by many friendly Indians. Among them was chief Atore who lived about four or five miles inland. After exchanging various presents and tokens of friendship the chief asked Laudonnière most fervently to go along with him to see something special. Because Atore was accompanied by a great number of his subjects, the French went with them in some trepidation. He took them to an island where, on a little hill, Ribaut had erected the stone column engraved with the coat of arms of the King of France. As they approached, the French realised the Indians were treating the stone as an idol. Even the chief himself was as respectful to it as his subjects were to him. After kissing the column his subjects followed, then he encouraged the French to do likewise. Before the stone were several gifts of local fruits and roots that were either good to eat or useful medically. Also there were dishes of fragrant oils and bows and arrows. Also it was clad in garlands of flowers and branches of the finest trees. After witnessing the behaviour of these poor people, the French returned to their comrades, eagerly planning where best to build a fort. Chief Atore was a handsome man, clever, well mannered, strong and tall, about a foot and a half taller than any of the French and of such sincerity that he appeared almost divine. He had taken his mother as his wife and had several sons and daughters by her, who appeared when he slapped his thighs. After marrying his mother, his father, Satouriona, did not touch her any more. (The stone column shown here, which evidently marked the southern boundary of the French claim to land in the New World near present-day Jacksonville, should not be confused with the one referred to in [371] above, which evidently marked the northern boundary, near present-day Port Royal. Also, the description above should not be thought incestuous – as Atore was probably Satouriona’s nephew and therefore not genetically related to Satouriona’s wife): £415

[374] A site for the fort is chosen: 1591

Many rivers were explored before the French decided that the River of May [St. John] would be the most suitable for a settlement because of the maize and flour they had discovered there on their first voyage. It was also thought such a broad river must drain a vast inland terrain and would be a suitable route for exploring for gold and silver. After sailing upstream they found a hill that seemed more suitable for building a fort than any other area they had so far reconnoitred. At dawn the next day they offered thanks to God for their happy arrival, after which they all began their work. First they marked out a triangle on the ground; then they began to dig the earth for making ramparts and fences of brushwood. Every man toiled hard with spade, saw, axe or some other tool, so the work progressed rapidly: £155

[375] Fort Caroline: 1591
When this fort was completed, the French named it Fort Caroline. The sides facing westward were defended by a ditch and ramparts built up with soil and turf to the height of nine feet. The side nearest the river was built up with planks and brushwood, with the top two or three feet of the wall built up with sods of earth. Inside the fort was a quadrangle eighteen yards long and wide for the soldiers’ quarters. One of the buildings was too high and blew down because of the wind. There was also a granary and Laudonnière’s house was next to the river. It had a porch all round and a front door which opened into the fort and a rear door onto the river. An oven was set a safe distance outside the fort so as to reduce the risk of fire. (On a slightly smaller scale than the original fort, this engraving formed the basis for the design and construction of the present day National Park building at Fort Caroline, near Jacksonville): £345

[376] Satouriona prepares for battle: 1591
The warriors gathered round their chief in a close circle. To the left of him a fire was burning, to the right were two large containers of water. The chief rolled his eyes and, gesticulating wildly, growled as if consumed with anger. Sometimes he made terrifying screams, which were echoed by his warriors who slapped their thighs so their weapons made a noise. Then he took up a bowl and turned towards the sun, respectfully and humbly asking for victory over his enemy, that their blood should be spilled like the water from the bowl. Then he threw the water in the air so it splashed upon his warriors, declaring: ‘do as I have done with the blood of your enemies’. Then, pouring the water from the other container on the fire, he cried: ‘thus you must exterminate your enemy and bring back their scalps’. When the ceremony was over, they all marched of to war as planned: £165

[377] Outina consults his sorcerer: 1591
Outina asked Laudonnière for the help of several arquebusiers because he was planning to go to war against his enemy. Laudonnière sent twenty-five of his men with Lieutenant d’Ottigny. When they arrived the chief greeted them with joy because he was convinced they would help him secure victory. The noise of the French firearms had caused terror throughout the region. When the chief was fully prepared, they immediately set off and made good progress on the first day. On the second, they ran into swamp and thorn bushes and the Indians had to carry the Frenchmen on their shoulders. This was a relief to the French because it was very hot. When they eventually arrived at the border of their enemy’s territory, the chief ordered his army to halt. He then consulted with the sorcerer, who was more than a hundred and twenty years old, to predict the enemy’s chances. The sorcerer cleared a space in the middle and when he saw Lieutenant d’Ottigny’s shield, carried by his footman, he asked to borrow it. He then placed it on the ground, drew a circle round it, five feet across and, after marking the ground with several letters and symbols, knelt down on the shield, squatting on his heels in such a way that he did not touch the ground. What he was muttering was not known but he made faces and gestures as if he were saying a fervent prayer. After about a quarter of an hour, he looked so frightful that he didn’t look human at all, twisting and turning his limbs so unnaturally that one could hear his bones snapping out of joint. When it was over he returned to his normal condition but seemed exhausted and terrified. He then left the circle and told the chief the position and strength of the enemy: £155

[378] The French help Outina fight the Potanou: 1591
The sorcerer’s prophecy was so frightening to Outina that he contemplated returning home again without confronting the enemy. However, Ottigny was annoyed at having trekked so far in vain and began to accuse him of cowardice. Such reproaches eventually persuaded Outina to order an attack, with the French arquebusiers in the front line. Thus they bore the brunt of the fighting by killing many of the enemy and routing Potanou’s army. Without the French, Outina’s men would have been defeated because Potanou’s men had come in great numbers. Thus, the report of the sorcerer proved right, so he must have been possessed by the devil. After Patanou’s men retreated, Outina ordered his army to march home again, even though Ottigny wanted to pursue the enemy and achieve a complete victory. (The depiction of opposing forces, here confronting one another en mass, is more a European concept and probably not representative of Indian tribal warfare.): £155

[379] How Outina’s Army marches to War: 1591

When Satouriona went to war, his warriors did not keep discipline but ran to and fro and seemed to be scattered all about. On the other hand his enemy, Holata Outina, who commanded more subjects and had more riches, kept his army in formation. He was painted all over in red and stood alone in the middle of his men. The flanks of the army were made up only of young men. The fastest runners, who were also painted red, scouted out and reconnoitred the enemy’s strengths and could detect their tracks like a dog smells game. When they recognised these tracks, they went back to report to the army. Just as we have trumpeters and drummers who signalled what action should be taken, so they had heralds, who indicated with calls, when to move, when to stop, when to attack the enemy or carry out some other activity. They never fought after sunset and when they pitched camp, they were deployed in files, separating the bravest from the others. The chief chose a place to camp for the night in the fields or woods, then, after he had eaten his evening meal and was sitting alone, the bravest ten files were ordered to sit around him at a measured distance. Then, after ten paces there were twenty files and, after twenty paces, there were forty files and so on. They increased the paces and files according to the size of the army: £155

[380] How Outina’s Warriors Dealt with the Enemy’s Corpses: 1591
During the time the French helped the mighty Chief Holata Outina in the wars he waged against the enemy, there was never a fight that could not be truly called a battle. Instead, they consisted of secret incursions or skirmishes involving small groups who would then retreat and be replaced by others. The first side to kill an enemy would claim the victory, no matter how lowly his status; even if that side subsequently went on to lose more people. There were those who were especially employed to carry away the dead during these skirmishes and cut off their enemy’s scalps. With a reed sharper than any steel blade, they cut the skin round the head then, tying the hair a yard in length into a bun, they pulled it off the skull. The hair above the forehead and at the back was cut to about two fingers in length so that it looked like the rim of a hat. If they had enough time, they would make a hole in the ground, fill it with moss, which they carried in the folds from their belts and start a fire in order to start drying the scalp until it looked like parchment. After the battle, they used these same reeds to cut open the flesh of the arms at the shoulders, and legs below the hips, so that they could break off the bones with a piece of wood. After drying these bloody and battered limbs over a fire, they would carry them home, along with these scalps triumphantly displayed on their spear-points. Something that astonished Jacques le Moyne, who was among those who were sent by Laudonnière with Lieutenant d’Ottigny, was that they would leave the battleground only after thrusting an arrow through the anus of the mutilated corpse: £110

[381] Ceremonials of Victory: 1591
On returning from battle, they congregated in a certain place where their enemy’s arms, legs and scalps were displayed on very long stakes that had been placed in a row on the ground. The men and women then sat round in a circle in front of their trophies, while the sorcerer sat in the middle, holding a small effigy of the enemy and uttering a thousand condemnations and curses at it. Three men knelt opposite the sorcerer, at the far end. One hit a stone with a club he was holding in both hands and repeating every word the sorcerer uttered. The other two sat either side, holding a pumpkin-like fruit. After its drying, this fruit was opened at both ends so that all the flesh and seeds could be removed, then it was filled with stones or grains and attached to a stick for a handle. Holding the handles, these were then rattled like bells, while they sang ancestral rituals in answer to the sorcerer. These ceremonies were held whenever several of their enemy were captured: £95

[382] The duties of the hermaphrodites: 1591
Those who had both male and female attributes were called hermaphrodites. They were common among the Indians and were employed like pack animals for carrying heavy loads because they were very strong. When the chiefs went to war, the hermaphrodites had to carry all the supplies. When an Indian died from wounds or an illness, they usually carried the body between two long poles with small sticks and matting woven from rushes laid across. They put a skin under the head, tied a second one across the stomach, a third over the hip and a fourth one round a calf. (Why they did this, Jacques le Moyne never asked but thought it implied special status because they did not decorate everyone like this. Leather straps, about the width of three or four fingers, were tied to the poles and put over their heads to support the weight. Thus they carried their dead to a burial place. Those who were suffering from an infection were also carried by the hermaphrodites but on their shoulders to a special place where they were cared for until they had recovered: £95

[383] How the widows petition their chief: 1591
There was a certain day when all the Indian widows approached their chief and began lamenting loudly. On arrival, they squatted before him with bowed heads and began begging him to avenge their husbands’ deaths, also to provide for them during their widowhood and, after a prescribed period of mourning, allow them to get married again. After that, they returned home weeping loudly in order to demonstrate to everyone how much they still loved their deceased husbands. After several more days of mourning they took all the deceased’s weapons and drinking cups to the burial ground: £95

[384] How the widows lament at the burial grounds: 1591
At the burial ground the widows laid their deceased husbands’ weapons and drinking cups upon their graves and then cut their own hair off at just below the level of the ears. They were not allowed to get married again during this period of mourning, which ended when their hair reached their shoulders again. Both men and women alike used to let their fingernails grow long. The men use to trim them to a point so that they could scratch or even blind their enemy: £95

[385] How the Indians treat their sick: 1591
They lay the sick person down upon a wooden bench. Then they cut the skin of his forehead with a sharp shell and sucked out the blood with their own mouths, spitting it out into an earthenware jar. Pregnant women then drink the blood, believing it will make their milk better and their children healthier, especially if it came from a strong warrior. Others, who were laid face down, inhaled smoke from a fire of hot coals upon which seeds were thrown. It was believed this purged their bodies of poisons. They also had a plant, which the Brazilians call petum and the Spanish tobacco. After drying its leaves, they were put in the bowl of a pipe and lit. Then they sucked the other end so the smoke came out through their noses and mouths. By this means they often cure infection. (This is the first ever illustration of actually smoking tobacco!): £95

[386] How the Indians till the soil: 1591

The Indians till the soil very diligently. The men break up the soil and level it, using a kind of hoe made from fishbone with a wooden handle. Then the women make holes in the ground with sticks into which others drop the seeds of beans or maize. During the three cold winter months, from December 24th to March 15th, they leave the fields alone and seek shelter in the woods. When the winter is over, they return to their homes and attend to the ripening of the crops. After they had gathered in the harvest, it was stored so as to make it last for the rest of the year. Occasionally they would barter small amounts of food for household articles: £95

[387] Collecting crops for the communal storehouse: 1591

There were many islands along this part of the coast on which crops grew in abundance. The Indians went out to these islands in dugouts twice a year to gather in the harvest. This was loaded into their dugouts and brought back to store in their barns. These buildings were usually wide and low, with walls of stones and mud and low roofs of thickly laid palm leaves and soft soil. They were usually built at the foot of a hill or rock, by the riverbank, out of the direct rays of the sun to keep their provisions cool and stop them from rotting. They would go to these storehouses in times of famine but no one was selfish so there was no fear of cheating: £155

[388] Collecting game for the communal storehouse: 1591
At certain times of the year the Indians would hunt in order to catch as many wild animals, fish, crocodiles and other reptiles as possible. They would also collect fruit and vegetables. Then the food would be put into baskets by the curly-haired hermaphrodites and carried to barns for preservation and storage. Only in cases of emergency was this food eaten. On such occasions the chief of the tribe would have first choice and then the others, each according to his rank. This ‘pecking order’ was well established and accepted by everyone so disputes rarely occurred: £110

[389] How the Indians preserved game: 1591
In order that the game the caught lasted longer, they prepared it in the following way. They pushed four large wooden forked stakes into the earth and laid sticks over these like a grill and on this they then laid out the game and fish. Beneath, they built a fire, the smoke from which hardens all the food, as can be seen in the picture. They were very careful to ensure it was dried out really well so that it would not rot. It was believed these food supplies were prepared in this way to help them through the winter, during which they lived in the woods. For this purpose they had storehouses for food and these were built under a crag or rock at the water’s edge, not far from the dense wood so they could collect what they needed by small boat. During this time the French were unable to obtain the least morsel of food from them: £155

[390] Hunting deer: 1591
When hunting deer, the Indians used ingenuity such as the French had never seen before. They fitted the skins of the largest deer that they had already caught, over their bodies so that the deer’s head covered their own, such that they were able to look through the eye sockets like a mask. Having previously noted the time when the deer came down to the river to drink, dressed like this they were able to get really close to them without the deer noticing. There were a lot of deer in that region so they were easily able to shoot them with their bows and arrows. In doing this they were able to protect their left arm from the string of the bow with a piece of tree-bark. They were able to remove the skin of the deer and prepare it without metal knives. They did this with shells so skilfully that I doubt there was anyone in the whole of Europe who could do better: £535

[391] Hunting alligators: 1591
The Indians made a small hut with holes in near the river in which someone could see and hear the alligators from a distance. When these creatures are hungry, they come out of the water onto the islands to hunt but if they could not find anything they made a terrible noise that could be heard for half a mile. Then the guard called ten or twelve other men, who approached the large and terrifying creatures with a long tree trunk. As it crawled towards them with its jaws open, they rammed the pointed end down its throat. Because of the roughness of the bark it could not get free so they were able to twist it over and shoot arrows into its soft belly, then club and spear it and cut it open. The hard scales made its back impossible to penetrate, especially if the creature was old: £465

[392] How the Floridians go swimming from island to island: 1591
That area had an unusual number of pretty islands. The waters were clean and clear but not deep, reaching up to one’s chest. In their leisure time, the Indians enjoyed themselves by crossing over the rivers to the islands with their wives and children. Some swam, at which they were very skilled, while those with young babies waded across the river with them. A mother could carry three children at a time, the smallest on her shoulders with the mother holding its hand and, while the other two clung on underneath her arms, she used her free hand to hold up above the water a basket of fruit and other food which they all ate on the other side. As a protection against enemy attack, the men carried bows and arrows. To prevent them from getting wet they tied the quiver to the top of their head with a length of their hair, while they held the bow and arrow, ready for defence, up above the water, as can be seen in this picture: £155

[393] Preparing for a feast: 1591
On certain times of the year the Indians prepared a communal feast. They started with a large fire of wood, which they kept alive by fanning it. Then they placed on the fire an earthenware bowl full of water. The chief cook emptied the raw food into the bowl, while women ground up various spices and herbs to be added for seasoning. Work was divided up so that everyone had his or her own job. When the food was ready, everyone ate in moderation, even though there was plenty to go round. This was probably one reason why they lived so long. One of the chiefs claimed to be 300 years old and he said his father was still alive: £110

[394] Ceremonial drinks at council meetings: 1591

At certain times of the year the chief and his noblemen met early each day in a public place, appointed for the purpose of consultation where the benches were built in the shape of a crescent. The chief sat on a special seat and his wisest councillors sat either side of him. Before sitting down they greeted him by raising their arms and saying: ha, he, ya, ha, ha, to which the others responded: ha, ha. While the men were engaged in discussion, the chief ordered several women to prepare ‘casina’, which was a drink brewed from the leaves of the sacred holly plant and then filtered out. The drink had special powers, for it induced perspiration as soon as it had been drunk. The chief drank first from a conch shell and passed it round to his councillors. Those who could not hold the drink down and had to vomit it out, had to fast for three or four days after and were not asked to do important tasks or hold positions of responsibility in battle because they were considered unreliable. After drinking this brew they could fast for twenty-four hours. The fact that this drink strengthened the body but did not give them any headaches was why the hermaphrodites carried no provisions, other than gourds or other wooden vessels full of this brew when they went to war: £155

[395] A typical Indian village: 1591
The Indians usually build their villages in the following way. Having chosen a suitable site near some fast flowing river, they made the ground level as best they could. Then they built a ditch round it and planted thick round wooden posts, twice the height of a man, side by side in the ground in a circle. At the entrance to the village, the circle of posts continued further round like a snail’s shell but so closely that no more than two people abreast could enter. Then they diverted a channel of the river to this place. At the entrance they built a small round house at each end. These two houses had lots of holes and vertical openings, which were built in the beautiful tradition of that country. In these houses they had guards who were capable of smelling out the tracks of enemies from a great distance. As soon as they picked up the scent of an intruder they went out to find him, whereupon they shouted out so that the inhabitants quickly gathered up their bows, arrows and clubs, and rushed out to defend the town. The chief’s house was situated in the middle and slightly sunk below ground level to protect it against the heat of the sun and is surrounded by his chief councillors. The other houses are smaller and resemble beehives, with an entrance and no windows, formed of branches with a light thatch of palm leaves. They used these houses for only nine months in the year, spending the other three in the woods. When they returned from the woods, they inhabited their houses again but if they were burnt down they simply rebuilt them: £135

[396] How the Indians burn their enemies’ villages: 1591
When the Indians felt like taking revenge on their enemy, they sometimes came as quietly by night as possible to see whether the guards were asleep. If they found no-one moving, they would creep round to the other side of the village and light dry tree moss attached to their arrows and shoot them onto the roofs of the houses which were covered with palm leaves that had dried out in the sun. As soon as the roofs were ablaze, they ran away as quickly as possible and, because they were so swift, they were difficult to catch. In any event, the inhabitants were too busy trying to escape the fire. These were the tactics the Indians used to destroy their enemy’s villages but, in truth, it did not do much harm to anyone when you consider it cost only the labour of building new houses: £135

[397] How a sentry was treated for negligence: 1591
A capital crime, such as a sentry’s sleeping while on duty, was treated in the following way. To receive his sentence, the criminal was brought to kneel before the nobility, who sat on benches arranged either side of their chief in a semi-circle. Then an executioner would come up behind the criminal, put one foot on his back, and hit him over the head with a sharp spatula-shaped club, made of ebony. The blow was so severe that his head would split open and he would die instantly: £135

[398] How the Indians declare war on their enemy: 1591
When a chief wanted to declare war on another, it was not his custom to send a messenger to announce his intention; rather he gave orders to put arrows in the ground along all the pathways, with small locks of hair attached. We saw this when we marched chief Outina through his land as a prisoner, in order to get food supplies from the people of his village: £135

[399] The sacrifice of the first-born son: 1591
When the sacrifice was about to take place, the chief of the tribe would take the seat at the front of which is a short tree stump. In front of the stump was the mother, whose first-born was about to be sacrificed, squatting with her face in her hands, weeping. All the other women danced joyfully round her in a circle. One of the mother’s friends held up the baby boy, offering him in sacrifice to the chief, before placing him on the tree-stump. Nearby, six Indians stood surrounding the executioner, whose skin was elaborately decorated from head to toe. When the women stopped dancing, the executioner advanced towards the baby-boy and clubbed him to death. Jacques le Moyne saw this ritual performed once while he was there: £155

[400] The solemn ritual of offering a deerskin to the sun: 1591
Every year, shortly before spring, at the end of February in fact, Chief Outina’s subjects took the skin of the largest stag they could find and with its horns still intact, stuffed it with all kinds of the best plants that grew in those parts, before sewing it up. Then they decorated the horns, the neck and the rest of the body with wreathes or garlands of the best fruit and, while singing to piped music, carried it to a beautiful wide-open space. There they placed it on the top of a tall tree-trunk, with its head and chest pointing towards the sunrise. Meanwhile, they repeatedly beseeched the sun to allow the growth of good things in their kingdom, similar to those being offered. The chief and his sorcerer, who were closest to the tree, lead the chanting, while the others, who were further away, responded. After the chief and his followers had greeted the sun, they went away, leaving the skin there until the following year, when the ceremony was again repeated: £155

[401] How the young men were trained: 1591

The young men were trained in running and those who could run the longest distance were given special prizes. They were also coached, especially in archery. Then they played a certain ball game in the following manner. In the middle of an open space, a post was erected, about eight or nine yards high, on top of which was a rectangular wooden frame, woven from rushes, and the one who managed to hit it with a ball was awarded a certain prize. Apart from this, they also enjoyed hunting and fishing very much: £155

[402] The procession of the bride: 1591
When a chief wanted to get married, he made his choice from the most beautiful and tallest of all the noble women. Then they fixed a chair to two long, strong poles. The chair was covered with some rare animal skin and decorated with branches from behind, so that they waved above the bride’s head when she was seated there. Four strong men lifted the poles onto their shoulders. Each one held a wooden crutch for propping up the pole when they wanted a rest. To either side of the bride walked two more men, carrying beautifully made sunshades, attached to long poles, for protecting her from the heat of the sun. At the front of the procession were others blowing trumpets made from tree-bark. They were narrow at the top and wider towards the bottom, with only two holes – one at the top and the other at the bottom for the breath to come out. These trumpets were hung with small long gold, silver and copper discs to produce a better sound. Following behind were the most beautiful maidens, dressed with pearl necklaces and bracelets; each carrying a basket of selected fruits. They wore a girdle below the navel but above the hip, made from tree-moss to cover their private parts. All the rest of the procession followed on behind: £155

[403] The chief receives his bride: 1591
The chief waits for his bride while sitting on his throne, on top of a large platform of round logs, especially erected for the purpose. Meanwhile, his principal followers sit below him on long benches to either side of the platform. Thus arranged, the bride is brought forward to greet him. After she takes her seat on the throne to his left, he congratulates her and explains why she has been chosen. Then, while all the maidens of the village hold hands in a circle, they perform a dance. Their hair is tied at the back of the head and flows down over their shoulders. Below their navels and round their waists, they have girdles, dangling down to their thighs from which are long round gold and silver balls that tinkle when they dance. While raising and lowering their hands in unison, they sing the praises of their chief and his chosen bride. All the men and women have pierced ears, in which they wear small oblong fish bladders. When they are inflated and painted red, they look rather like rubies: £135

[404] Satouriona and his wife go for a stroll: 1591
On occasions, the chief and his principal wife went out for a walk in the evening together in the woods. He wore a deerskin so finely prepared with decorations painted in many colours that you would not see anything more beautiful anywhere. Next to the chief walked two young men, carrying fans to create a soft breeze. Behind them was a third young man who wore small gold and silver discs, dangling from his belt. He held up the chief’s deerskin so it did not trail along the ground. The chief’s wife and her maidservants were all dressed in a special kind of moss, which draped over their shoulders or round them, like girdles. This moss had a greenish-azure colour, which shone like silk and hung together like a chain. It grew, hanging down from the highest branches of many of the trees in that region and looked very beautiful. When le Moyne was out hunting with some of his companions in the woods near chief Satouriona’s home, he saw him and his wife dressed in this way. You should know, kind reader, that all these chiefs and their wives decorate the skin of their bodies with all sorts of colourful spots and designs, as can be seen from the figures. The way this was done sometimes caused them to become ill for seven or eight days. The spotted areas were rubbed with the dyes of certain herbs, such that they could not be removed. Also, for decoration, they grew the nails on their hands and feet very long and with shells were able to sharpen them like claws. Around their mouths they painted a blue colour: £345

[405] Mourning the death of a chief: 1591

The burial of a chief was a solemn affair. His drinking cup was placed on his grave and arrows put in the ground to form a circle round it. Men and women alike mourned and fasted for three whole days and nights. Certain women were selected to howl for him for three hours every day, for a six-month period and as a token of respect they cut their hair to half its length. All the chief’s possessions were burnt with his house. The chief’s funeral was different from those of sorcerers who, when they died, were burnt with their houses and possessions: £135

[406] How they collected gold from the rivers in the Apalatci mountains: 1591

Quite a distance from their fort, were big mountains, which the Indians call ‘Apalatci’. From there, three rivers sprung. They brought with them sand, within which a lot of gold, silver and copper was buried. The Indians made channels in those rivers, so that they got filled with the heavy sand. Then they took this sand to a certain place, from whence it was loaded into their canoes and transported down a large river called the May to the sea. The Spanish knew how to take advantage of the wealth coming from this source: £345

[407] The fate of Pierre Gambié: 1591
As a result of being given permission by Laudonnière to take time off to travel through the land to offer his wares by trading with the inhabitants, Pierre Gambié acquired modest wealth and became related to one of the lesser chiefs, through marriage to his daughter. When he subsequently asked the Indian chief if he could leave them for a visit to the fort and be among his kin, he was granted permission to do so, only on the condition that he return within a certain time. Thus he was given a canoe and two Indians to accompany him back. Because he had taken with him all his acquired wealth, his two companions murdered him, while he was bending down to blow on the fire. This they did, partly out of revenge, as Gambié had previously caned one of them, while he was managing his father-in-law’s affairs during the chief’s absence, and partly out of greed for the treasures that were in the canoe. These treasures, the two companions ran off with and the incident did not come to light for a long time thereafter: £110

Bahamas

[408] Columbus lands on the island of San Salvador: 1594
On 12th October 1492, after 33 days at sea, Columbus sighted land. His three ships made their way round the south-west point of an island Columbus named San Salvador - believed today to be Watling Island in the Bahamas. According to Benzoni, they cut down a tree on the western shore, made a cross and erected it in the name of Christianity. The native Arawaks, who called their island ‘Guanahaní’, fled in terror but later returned with gifts of friendship but not the fabulous ornaments suggested here. It was believed they wore small gold pendants, which they said had come from another island to the southwest: £275

[409] Indians catch whales in the West Indies: 1601-2
It was reported that the Indians paddled out to sea in their canoes to catch whales. If they got close enough they would climb onto the creature’s back and hammer two wooden pegs into its nostrils, through which it breathed and sprayed water. Ropes were tied to these pegs, with which they would haul the creature onto dry land when it was unable to breathe any more. When the Indians fished with nets, they would paddle out, astride bundles of papyrus reeds. When they returned to shore they would leave their craft out to dry in the sun: £65

California

[410] Francis Drake lands in California: 1599
In June 1579, Drake’s fleet anchored in ‘a convenient and fit harbour’ on the North West Coast of America in about 38° (believed today to be San Francisco). They discovered Indians living in log huts, pointed at the top, with earth piled up all round. Inside the occupants sat on straw, round fires. When the English landed, their chief led a procession of twelve thousand men to meet the new arrivals. Drake lined up his men for battle, but the Indian herald gave a long speech then placed a crown on Drake’s head. The English named this place ‘New Albion’ under the misguided belief that this ceremony was to signify the Indian’s subjugation of their land to the English: £235

[411] Map: A reduced state of Drake’s Broadside Map: 1599-1600
This is the only known derivative of Hondius’s Broadside Map: ‘Vera Totius Expeditionis Nauticae …’ It shows Drake’s round-the-world voyage, from December 1577 to September 1580. Although reduced in size, none of the geographic detail is lost. The two hemispheres are set against an ornate rectangular strap-work background and above them is a medallion portrait of Drake, himself, while below is a broadside view of his ship the ‘Golden Hind’. Marked on the map is Drake’s track round the world, including his landing at, what is thought to be, San Francisco on the north-west coast of North America (see [410] above:): £950

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De Soto landed in Tampa Bay, Florida in 1539 and explored inland, possibly as far north as the Blue Ridge Mountains (see de Bry’s print [363]). The first French expedition to America, however, was lead by Jean Ribaut, who explored the coast of the Eastern Seaboard, from St. Augustine in Florida, perhaps as far north as Port Royal in South Carolina (see de Bry’s prints [366-372]). This was followed two years later by a second French expedition, lead by Rene de Laudonniere, and the artist Jacques le Moyne was also with this expedition and his drawings de Bry engraved for prints (see [373-407]). They illustrated the Indians around the estuary of the St. Johns River in Florida. Then, in 1585, Richard Grenville landed an English expedition at Pamlico Sound in North Carolina. During their stay, the mathematician Thomas Hariot and the painter John White studied and painted the land and people around Albemarle Sound, and John White’s watercolours were subsequently transcribed into copperplate prints by de Bry (see prints [334-355] under Virginia, inc. N. Carolina). Then in 1579, during his round the world voyage, Francis Drake was believe to have explored the northwest coast of North America and landed in at San Francisco bay in California (see de Bry’s print [410] and map [411]. In 1607 an English Colony called Jamestown was set up on the St. James River in the Chesapeake Bay (see de Bry prints [356-361] under Virginia, inc. North Carolina).